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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Chromosomal abnormalities in the peripheral lymphocytes of a Thorotrast case were followed up for almost nine years during which four direct bone marrow observations were made. Chromosomal abnormalities, both Cu type (dicentrics, rings, and acentric fragments) and Cs type (reciprocal translocations, inversions, deletions, duplications, and others), were observed with an average frequency of about 7.5% and 8%, respectively. The frequency of chromosomal abnormalities showed no significant changes during the nine years. Formation of clones of cells with identical chromosomal abnormalities was observed both in bone marrow and peripheral lymphocytes. There were clones common to myeloid and lymphoid cell series, which may be regarded as evidence for the presence of pluripotent stem cells in man. One such common clone had a translocation involving chromosomes 2 and 22. Banding analysis revealed a break in chromosome 22 at the q12 or q12/13 band interface. The frequency of the clone remained fairly constant within 5% for several years and the patient showed no indication of leukemia or any other blood disease. The finding seems to suggest a genetic factor relating to the development of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML), which generally shows the Ph1 chromosome resulting from a translocation of chromosome 22 with the break at the q11 or q11/12 band interface. The increase in the number of cells lacking the Y chromosome was observed in our final bone marrow sample, but the phenomenon may be attributed to the age of the patient rather than to the direct effect of radiation. Results of the cytogenetic follow-up study seem to indicate the importance of studies in this direction for a better understanding of radiation effects on human beings.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The various species of Japanese hagfish, namely, Eptatretus okinoseanus (types A and B), Eptatretus burgeri and Myxine garmani, are known to eliminate a fraction of their chromosomes during early embryogenesis. High molecular weight DNA from germ line cells and somatic cells of these hagfish species was isolated and digested with different restriction enzymes. The DNA fragments were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Digestion with BamHI and DraI generated two weak bands and one weak band, respectively, that were estimated to be about 90, and 180 bp and about 90 bp long and were limited to the germ line DNA in both types of E. okinoseanus. DNA filter hybridization experiments showed that the two BamHI fragments and the one DraI fragment were present almost exclusively in the germ line DNA of E. okinoseanus. Thus, these DNA fragments appear to be eliminated during embryogenesis. Moreover, evidence was obtained that these fragments are highly and tandemly repeated. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the BamHI fragments are mainly composed of a family of closely related sequences that are 95 bp long (EEEo1, for Eliminated Element of E. okinoseanus 1), and the DraI fragment is composed of another family of closely related sequences that are 85 bp long (EEEo2). The two DNA families account for about 19% of the total eliminated DNA in E. okinoseanus type A. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that the two families of DNA are located on several C-band-positive, small chromosomes that are limited to germ cells in both types of E. okinoseanus.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The New Zealand hagfish, Eptatretus cirrhatus, is known to eliminate parts of its chromosomes during embryogenesis from presumptive somatic cells. Electrophoresis of germ line and somatic DNAs of this species, after treatment with the restriction endonucleases DraI and EcoRI, revealed three fragments of DNA that were restricted to the germ line. DNA filter hybridization experiments demonstrated that these fragments were present almost exclusively in the germ line DNA of E. cirrhatus and that they were highly and tandemly repeated. Thus, these DNA fragments appeared to be eliminated during embryogenesis. Moreover, one fragment (a DraI fragment) cross-hybridized with the germ line DNA from other species of hagfish, namely, Eptatretus okinoseanus and Paramyxine atami. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the DraI fragment was composed mainly of closely related sequences of 85 bp in length and that this sequence was about 75% homologous to the sequence of EEEo2 (eliminated element of E. okinoseanus 2) which is a germ line-restricted and highly repetitive sequence that was isolated previously from E. okinoseanus. The other two fragments were composed of three families of closely related sequences that were 172 bp long (designated EEEc1), 61 bp long (EEEc2) and 54 bp long (EEEc3). Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments revealed that each eliminated element was distributed on several chromosomes that are limited to germ cells. EEEo2 was dispersed on 12 C-band-positive chromosomes. EEEc1 and EEEc3 were dispersed on all C-band-positive and several C-band-negative chromosomes. By contrast, EEEc2 was located to terminal regions of several C-band-negative chromosomes. These results suggest that the eliminated chromosomes in hagfish are mosaics of highly repeated, germ line-restricted families of DNA sequences.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Key words: Concerted evolution — Repetitive DNA — Tandem repeats — Saltatory replication — Subrepeat — Chromosome elimination — Hagfish
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. In eight hagfish species, it is known that chromosome elimination occurs during early embryogenesis, and some highly repetitive DNA families, restricted to germ cells, have been isolated. One of these families, ``EEEo2,'' has been isolated as DNA fragments by restriction enzyme analyses from Eptatretus okinoseanus and E. cirrhatus. In this study, EEEo2 sequences were isolated from germline DNA in E. burgeri, Paramyxine sheni, and P. atami using PCR methods. Sequence analysis revealed that these sequences are intraspecifically homogeneous, except in E. burgeri, and are interspecifically conserved with heterogeneity. The intraspecific sequence variability tends to decrease as the copy number increases. These results indicate that EEEo2 has evolved in a concerted manner. Moreover, an ancestral repeating motif consisting of triplicate subrepeats was deduced. These results suggest that EEEo2 arose as an initial amplification of this subrepeat and has evolved by saltatory replication. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the possibility that EEEo2 in E. okinoseanus and E. cirrhatus has been subjected to strong homogenizing forces for concerted evolution, whereas the force is weak in E. burgeri. In addition, EEEo2 in P. sheni and P. atami appear to have been incompletely subjected to these forces. Chromosomal in situ hybridization experiments revealed that EEEo2 sequences were located along almost their entire length of several heterochromatic chromosomes that are restricted to germ cells. These chromosomes are disposed to form a secondary association during the first meiotic metaphases, except in P. sheni. This chromosomal distribution may promote a concerted mode of sequence evolution in both nonhomologous chromosomes and homologous chromosomes and reflect the differential driving forces between species.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Allelic distributions of Thy-1, Ly-l, and Ly-2 antigens in wild mice are characteristic of each Mus musculus subspecies. Eastern mice (M.m.molossinus, M.mmusculus, M.m.castaneus, M.m.bactrianus) express the Thy-1.1 antigen, whereas Western mice (M.m. domesticus, M.m.brevirostris) express the Thy-1.2. All mice from wild populations examined in this survey express the Ly-1.2. The Ly-2.1 is distributed in Eastern mice and some Western mice, and the Ly-2.2 is found in the remaining Western mice. Allelic distributions of these antigens were also examined in two other species, Mus spretus and Mus spicilegus. Allelic constitutions of Thy-1 and Ly-1 in these species are similar to those of Eastern mice. Some M.spicilegus, however, express the Ly-1.1 antigen. This antigenic type is not found in M.musculus. Some Eastern mice related to M.m.castaneus react weakly to Ly-1.2-specific and Ly-2.1-specific monoclonal antibodies in both the complement-mediated cytotoxicity test and the absorption test. These results suggest that M.m.castaneus has unique alleles in the Ly-1 and Ly-2 loci.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: B-chromosome ; chromatin diminution ; chromosome elimination ; hagfish germ cell
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have confirmed that chromosome elimination occurs in the cells ofMyxine glutinosa, collected from the Baltic Sea off Sweden,Eptatretus cirrhatus from the south Pacific Ocean off the east coast of New Zealand, andE. stoutii from the north-east Pacific Ocean off Canada, similar to cells of four Japanese hagfish species. InM. Glutinosa, E. cirrhatus type A,E. cirrhatus type B andE. stoutii, the differences in chromosome number between spermatogonia (44, 72, 80 and 48) and somatic cells (28, 34, 34 and 34) were 16, 38, 46 and 14 respectively. The amount of DNA eliminated from presumptive somatic cells averaged 43.5%, 48.7%, 54.6% and 52.8% respectively. Euchromatic chromosomes and/or parts of chromosomes in addition to heterochromatic chromosomes were clearly eliminated inE. cirrhatus andE. stoutii. Adding our previous observations of four Japanese hagfish species, chromosome elimination occurs in all seven of the hagfish species. These results suggest that this phenomenon, chromosome elimination, generally occurs in the order Myxinida. In addition, B-chromosomes were observed in the germ cells ofE. cirrhatus andE. stoutii, similar to the cells ofE. okinoseanus, E. burgeri andParamyxine atami (E. atami). This fact suggests that B-chromosomes might exist generally in the family Eptatretidae.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: cyprinid fishes ; fluorescence in-situ hybridization ; karyotype evolution ; NOR ; 5S ribsomal DNAs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 5S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) from two cyprinid species, Acheilognathus tabira subsp. 1 and Cyprinus carpio, were isolated and sequenced. Tandemly arranged rDNAs were 179 bp in A. tabira and 204 bp in C. carpio. The non-transcribed spacer region elucidates the size difference of 5S rDNA between the two species. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) localized 5S rDNAs to the short arms of two pairs of chromosomes in A. tabira and two to four pairs in C. carpio. Subsequent analysis demonstrated NORs in one pair of chromosomes in both species. Both the NOR and 5S rDNA are carried by a chromosome pair in A. tabira, but they are located on different chromosomes separately in C. carpio. Karyotype evolution by tetraploidy seems complex in cyprinid species.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: Batrachuperus pinchonii ; C-banded karyotype ; chromosome number ; Pseudohynobius flavomaculatus ; Ranodon shihi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Initial analysis of Pseudohynobius flavomaculatus chromosomes determined the chromosome number of this species to be 2n = 52. A re-examination of Ranodon shihi chromosomes detected 2n = 66 chromosomes, in contrast with a previous finding of 2n = 64. The C-banding patterns of these two species and that ofBatrachuperus pinchonii were compared with each other. Regions of homoeology in the C-banding pattern among these three species represented 33.51–48.30% of the total length of their chromosomes. We also detected two types of chromosome rearrangement in hynobiid species based on the results of the present and previous cytogenetic studies.
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