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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In vitro effects of methotrexate (MTX) on interleukin-2(IL-2)-mediated cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied. PBMC were incubated with human recombinant IL-2 (25 U/ml) for 72 h; during the last 24 h, various concentrations (10 pM–1 µM) of MTX were added to the culture. Cytotoxicity against k562 cells was measured by a 4-h51Cr-release assay. The IL-2-mediated cytotoxicity was paradoxically increased at around a concentration (10 nM) MTX. Such a low concentration of MTX showed no anti-proliferative effect on cell growth. This enhancement with 10 nM MTX was shown only in an E-rosette+ (E+) population, but not in E-rosette− (E−). In addition, when E+ cells were treated with an anti-CD16 monoclonal antibody plus complement after incubation with IL-2 and MTX, MTX-induced enhancement was lost, suggesting that an E+CD16+ cell population was mainly involved in this augmentation. Positively sorted E+CD16+ cells showed similar enhancement of cytotoxicity after treatment with IL-2 plus MTX. On the other hand, MTX treatment did not show the phenotypical changes including of the E+CD16+ cells, indicating that this treatment did not affect the differentiation and proliferation of the specific cell subset. Our results indicate that a low dose of MTX could have a role in the regulation of immunological anti-cancer surveillance systems through the natural killer and lymphokine-activated cytotoxic cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: granisetron ; prevention ; nausea ; vomiting ; cancer chemotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background We investigated the efficacy and safety of granisetron in 40 pediatric oncology patients who received identical chemotherapy regimens for three courses. Methods During the first course, the emetogenicity of each chemotherapy regimen was evaluated without granisetron. Next patients received one of two doses of intravenous granisetron, i.e. 20 or 40 mcg/kg during the second and third course of chemotherapy in a cross-over fashion. Results Out of the 40 patients, two children had no emetic episode during the 24 hour period following commencement of the first course of chemotherapy. Whereas, 23 patients receiving 20 μ/kg granisetron, and 22 patients receiving 40 μ/kg, obtained complete response (no emetic episode during the 24 hour period following commencement of chemotherapy) in the second or third course. When patients received 20 or 40 μ/kg of granisetron, all measured efficacy parameters were superior in comparison to the period when they were receiving no granisetron. There was no significant difference in the antiemetic effect between the two doses of granisetron. However, a dose-related improvement in efficacy was observed with granisetron in a certain subset of patients; that is, 4 of the 10 patients receiving 20 μ/kg, who had responded poorly with respect to nausea and vomiting, showed a complete or major response when the dose was increased to 40 μ/kg. One child developed somnolence. No other adverse events were observed. Conclusion Granisetron is an effective and safe antiemetic for children receiving intensive chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatin, cyclophosphamide or methotrexate. When comparing the two doses of 20 and 40 μ/kg, 40 μ/kg appeared more effective; although the difference was not statistically significant.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-7780
    Keywords: Key words Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae ; Haemophilus influenzae ; Respiratory tract infection ; Cefditoren ; Multidrug resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract There is an increasing spread and incidence of penicillin-resistant bacteria that are becoming less susceptible to commonly prescribed oral antimicrobials, including extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Against this background, we undertook this study to determine the prevalence of penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and the in-vitro activity of oral antimitrobials. Between April 1996 and December 1997, in 245 children with respiratory tract infections (bronchitis in 61, pharyngitis in 115, and tonsillitis in 69), 119 strains of Haemophilus influenzae, 89 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, 61 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 36 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and 34 strains of Moraxella catarrhalis were isolated from the pharynx. The antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was assessed by a broth microdilution method. The isolation incidence of penicillin-intermediately resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP) and penicillin-highly resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) was 59.0% and 13.1%, respectively. Most strains of PISP and PRSP were highly resistant to cefaclor, cefpodoxime, cefteram, cefdinir, clarithromycin, ampicillin, and minocycline, but susceptibile to ofloxacin and cefditoren (CDTR). The in-vitro activity of CDTR was superior to that of other cephalosporins, such as cefaclor, cefdinir, and cefpodoxime, when tested against both the β-lactamase-positive and -negative H. influenzae isolated. CDTR was also active against all the other strains, including methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, S. pyogenes, and M. catarrhalis. This study suggested that CDTR was a useful oral antibiotic for pediatric respiratory tract infections.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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