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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; GENES ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR ; TUMOR PROGRESSION ; snail ; hepatitis
    Abstract: The cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin has critical functions in development and carcinogenesis. Impaired expression of E-cadherin has been associated with disrupted tissue homeostasis, progression of cancer and a worse patient prognosis. So far, the role of E-cadherin in homeostasis and carcinogenesis of the liver is not well understood. By use of a mouse model with liver-specific deletion of E-cadherin and administration of the carcinogen diethylnitrosamin, we demonstrate that loss of E-cadherin expression in hepatocytes results in acceleration of the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In contrast, liver regeneration is not disturbed in mice lacking E-cadherin expression in hepatocytes. In human HCC we observed four different expression patterns of E-cadherin. Notably, atypical cytosolic expression of E-cadherin was positively correlated with a poorer patient prognosis: The median overall survival of patients with HCC expressing E-cadherin on the membrane only was 221 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI), 51-391) compared to 131 weeks in patients with cytosolic expression (95% CI, 71 - 191 weeks; p〈0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrate that impaired expression of E-cadherin promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis and is associated with a worse prognosis in humans.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24840851
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  • 2
    Abstract: To investigate the role of DRO1 in obesity and adipogenesis in vivo, we generated a constitutive Dro1 knockout mouse model and analyzed the effect of DRO1 loss on body growth under standard and high fat diet feeding conditions. Loss of DRO1 resulted in a significant increase in body weight which was accompanied by a substantial expansion of white adipose tissue depots. The obese phenotype could be further enhanced by a high fat dietary challenge which also resulted in impaired glucose metabolism and the development of hepatosteatosis in Dro1 knockout mice. To study the role of DRO1 in adipocyte differentiation, primary stromal-vascular (SV) cells were isolated from inguinal white fat pads of knockout and control mice. In primary SV cells, depletion of DRO1 significantly promoted adipogenesis with upregulation of markers for adipogenesis (Cebpa, Pparg, Adipoq) and lipid metabolism (Dgat1, Dgat2). Our results demonstrate that DRO1 is a crucial regulator of energy homeostasis in vivo and functions as an inhibitor of adipogenesis in primary cells.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27645901
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  • 3
    Abstract: Detection of methylated free-circulating DNA (mfcDNA) for hyperplastic polyposis 1 (HPP1) in blood is correlated with a poor prognosis for patients with metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC). Here, we analyzed the plasma levels of HPP1 mfcDNA in mCRC patients treated with a combination therapy containing a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab to test whether HPP1 mfcDNA is a suitable prognostic and response biomarker. From 467 patients of the prospective clinical study AIO-KRK-0207, mfcDNA was isolated from plasma samples at different time points and bisulfite-treated mfcDNA was quantified using methylation specific PCR. About 337 of 467 patients had detectable levels for HPP1 mfcDNA before start of treatment. The detection was significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.86; 95%CI 1.37-2.53). About 2-3 weeks after the first administration of combination chemotherapy, HPP1 mfcDNA was reduced to non-detectable levels in 167 of 337 patients. These patients showed a better OS compared with patients with continued detection of HPP1 mfcDNA (HR HPP1(sample 1: pos/ sample 2: neg) vs. HPP1(neg/neg) = 1.41; 95%CI 1.00-2.01, HPP1(neg,pos/pos) vs. HPP1(neg/neg) = 2.60; 95%CI 1.86-3.64). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that HPP1 mfcDNA discriminates well between patients who do (not) respond to therapy according to the radiological staging after 12 or 24 weeks (AUC = 0.77 or 0.71, respectively). Detection of HPP1 mfcDNA can be used as a prognostic marker and an early marker for response (as early as 3-4 weeks after start of treatment compared with radiological staging after 12 or 24 weeks) to identify patients who will likely benefit from a combination chemotherapy with bevacizumab.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28124380
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  • 4
    Keywords: GROWTH ; INHIBITION ; ANTITUMOR-ACTIVITY ; TUMOR PROGRESSION ; COLON-CANCER ; MUTATIONS ; MELANOMA-CELLS ; ERK ; cetuximab ; PATHWAY ACTIVATION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancers carrying the B-Raf V600E-mutation are associated with a poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to identify B-RafV600E-mediated traits of cancer cells in a genetic in vitro model and to assess the selective sensitization of B-RafV600E-mutant cancer cells towards therapeutic agents. METHODS: Somatic cell gene targeting was used to generate subclones of the colorectal cancer cell line RKO containing either wild-type or V600E-mutant B-Raf kinase. Cell-biologic analyses were performed in order to link cancer cell traits to the BRAF-mutant genotype. Subsequently, the corresponding tumor cell clones were characterized pharmacogenetically to identify therapeutic agents exhibiting selective sensitivity in B-RafV600E-mutant cells. RESULTS: Genetic targeting of mutant BRAF resulted in restoration of sensitivity to serum starvation-induced apoptosis and efficiently inhibited cell proliferation in the absence of growth factors. Among tested agents, the B-Raf inhibitor dabrafenib was found to induce a strong V600E-dependent shift in cell viability. In contrast, no differential sensitizing effect was observed for conventional chemotherapeutic agents (mitomycin C, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil), nor for the targeted agents cetuximab, sorafenib, vemurafenib, RAF265, or for inhibition of PI3 kinase. Treatment with dabrafenib efficiently inhibited phosphorylation of the B-Raf downstream targets Mek 1/2 and Erk 1/2. CONCLUSION: Mutant BRAF alleles mediate self-sufficiency of growth signals and serum starvation-induced resistance to apoptosis. Targeting of the BRAF mutation leads to a loss of these hallmarks of cancer. Dabrafenib selectively inhibits cell viability in B-RafV600E mutant cancer cells.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24885690
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  • 5
    Abstract: Colorectal cancer develops from adenomatous precursor lesions by a multistep process that involves several independent mutational events in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene is an early event and prerequisite for the development of human colorectal adenoma. Previous in vitro studies identified DRO1 (CCDC80) to be a putative tumor suppressor gene that is negatively regulated in colorectal cancers and down-regulated upon neoplastic transformation of epithelial cells. To investigate the in vivo role of DRO1 in colorectal carcinogenesis, a constitutive DRO1 knockout mouse model was generated. Disruption of DRO1 did not result in spontaneous intestinal tumor formation, consistent with the notion that DRO1 might have a role in suppressing the development of colon tumors in ApcMin/+ mice, a widely used model for studying the role of APC in intestinal tumorigenesis that is hampered by the fact that mice predominantly develop adenomas in the small intestine and not in the colon. Here, deletion of DRO1 in ApcMin/+ mice results in earlier death, a dramatically increased colonic tumor burden, and frequent development of colorectal carcinoma. Furthermore, enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is observed in colon epithelium and tumors from DRO1 knockout mice. Thus, this study reveals that inactivation of DRO1 is required for colorectal carcinogenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse and establishes a new mouse model for the study of colorectal cancer. Implications: This report characterizes a new mouse model for the study of colorectal cancer and establishes DRO1 (CCDC80) as a tumor suppressor via a mechanism involving ERK-phosphorylation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25053805
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; MODEL ; NEOPLASIA ; PROGRESSION ; MUTATIONS ; APC GENE ; LYMPHOCYTE DEVELOPMENT ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR E2-2 ; COLORECTAL TUMORIGENESIS
    Abstract: Deregulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling following inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene is frequently found in colorectal cancer. We have previously shown that levels of ITF-2B, encoded by the beta-catenin target gene ITF2 that is located on the tumor suppressor gene locus 18q21, are increased in colonic adenomas with deregulated beta-catenin activity. However, during tumor progression ITF-2B levels are reduced, suggesting that ITF-2B interferes with tumor development. To investigate the role of ITF2 in intestinal tumorigenesis, we specifically inactivated Itf2 in the intestinal epithelium of Apc(Min/+) mice. We found that genetic disruption of Itf2 on the Apc(Min/+) background results in earlier death and a significant increase in tumor number and size in the small intestine. Based on these data Itf2 acts as a tumor suppressor gene of the intestinal tract that inhibits tumor initiation and growth.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25869068
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  • 7
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; PROGRESSION ; COLON-CANCER ; METAANALYSIS ; TARGET GENES ; APC ; MICROSATELLITE-INSTABILITY
    Abstract: The majority of sporadic forms of colorectal carcinomas is characterized by deregulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling early in colorectal carcinogenesis. As a consequence, ITF-2B protein levels are increased in adenomas of these patients. However, ITF-2B protein levels are strongly reduced with increasing carcinoma stages, suggesting that reduction of ITF-2B protein is required for progression of adenomas to colorectal carcinomas. To find out if ITF-2B protein levels are correlated with the survival of patients with colorectal carcinomas, a tissue microarray containing samples from 213 colorectal carcinomas (T-categories T2 and T3) with corresponding survival information was stained with an ITF-2B antibody. In addition, we analyzed if detection of ITF-2B in microsatellite instable and microsatellite stable carcinomas as well as in colorectal carcinomas with KRAS mutations is correlated with survival. Detection of cytoplasmic ITF-2B protein was associated with better overall and progression free survival of patients with colorectal carcinomas (P=0.033 and 0.024, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed an increased risk to suffer from poor overall survival and recurrent disease if no cytoplasmic ITF-2B was detectable (HR=1.91; P=0.033 and HR=1.75; P=0.033, respectively). Similarly, patients with MSS carcinomas had a better overall survival, if they showed cytoplasmic positivity for ITF-2B (P=0.013). Remarkably, patients with colorectal carcinomas carrying KRAS mutations had a better overall and progression free survival rate if the carcinomas were positive for cytoplasmic ITF-2B (HR=4.71; P=0.002 and HR=2.57; P=0.024, respectively). These data suggest that cytoplasmic protein levels of ITF-2B could be used as a prognostic marker for patients with colorectal carcinomas.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26328254
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  • 8
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  27. Deutscher Krebskongress; 20060322-20060326; Berlin; DOCOP487 /20060320/
    Publication Date: 2006-04-21
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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