Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
The accumulation of chromium in Spirodela polyrhiza was investigated in the presence and absence of exogenously applied sulphate. Precultivation (10 d) at minimum sulphate concentration (0.013 m m versus 1 m m in controls) enhanced the rate of chromium accumulation. This effect was caused by the increased number of sulphate transporters which transport chromate into cells. Chromate and sulphate compete for the available sulphate transporters. The kinetics of reduction Cr(VI)→Cr(V) was investigated by l-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The kinetic model developed previously (Appenroth et al., Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 78, 235–242, 2000) was refined and extended to include chromate transport and reduction in the presence of competing ions. The following conclusions were drawn from the fitting procedure: without simultaneously applied sulphate, the rate constant of Cr(VI) transport from apoplast into plant cells and the rate constant of Cr(VI) to Cr(V) reduction within the apoplast are comparable (7.0 versus 5.7 h−1) demonstrating that these two processes are competing. Moreover, the rate constant of reduction Cr(V)→Cr(III) is much lower within cells than in apoplast (0.39 versus 7.0 h−1) showing that Cr(V) is stabilized in the symplast. The rate of transport of Cr(VI) into plant cells is at least one order of magnitude higher than that of Cr(V) or Cr(III). The treatment with sulphate (10 m m) decreases the rate constant of the transport of Cr(VI) into cells (2.0 h−1) confirming the competition of chromate and sulphate for the same transporters. Simultaneously, the rate constant of Cr(V)→Cr(III) reduction is increased in the apoplast (by the factor of 3) and decreased in the symplast (by the factor of 5). Treatment with higher sulphate concentrations (100 m m) increases the accumulation of chromium by enhancing the rate constant of Cr(VI) transport into cells leaving other processes essentially unchanged. We suggest that 100 m m sulphate opens a new pathway for chromate transport into cells.
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