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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0921-4534
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Three dimensional observation of the nerve fibers along the cerebral blood vessels was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis was also performed in the cerebral blood vessels treated with peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunohistochemistry intensified by nickel ammonium sulfate. Nerve fibers (2–8 μm in diameter) formed a plexus on the outer surface of the adventitia. After branching, the nerve fibers penetrated the blood vessel adventitia. Substance P-immunoreactive nerve fibers showed a meshwork pattern in the outer layer of the adventitia, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers revealed a spiral running pattern in the inner layer of the adventitia. Taken together with previous studies, these findings suggest that substance P nerve fibers in the cerebral arteries may not be related to arterial dilatation or constriction, but VIP nerve fibers may be vasodilative.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Brain non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ; Stereotactic needle biopsy ; Paraffin-section immunohistochemistry ; Monoclonal antibody ; Diagnosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A stereotactic needle biopsy was examined for applicability in diagnosing brain non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), because the procedure is far less aggressive than biopsy by open surgery. Formalin-fixed materials including four stereotactic specimens were available from nine patients with brain NHL. In addition to routine histopathology and histochemistry, paraffin-section immunohistochemistry was performed using a panel of monoclonal antibodies suited to such sections. Although several histopathological features characteristic of brain NHL could not be evaluated in three of the four stereotactic specimens owing to the small size of the specimens and partial invasion by lymphoma cells, the lesions in all cases could be characterised by immunohistochemistry. Examination for cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) was also performed, but specific identification of cIg was difficult in five cases because of diffuse background staining and passive diffusion of plasma protein into the cells during tissue processing. A review of the literature indicates the technical difficulty in cIg staining, since the incidence of cIg-positive cases in an individual study varied considerably, and lymphoma cells in 15 of 128 cIg-positive brain NHL cases have been reported to possess both light chains. From these findings, together with the relative difficulty in obtaining fresh tissues for study, it is concluded that, when the specimens are to be examined by paraffin-section immunohistochemistry using the above monoclonal antibodies, stereotactic needle biopsy is a useful, less aggressive method for diagnosing brain NHL.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Parkinson's disease ; sympathetic neurons ; tissue culture ; neural transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The superior cervical ganglia (SCG) of newborn rats, which had been cultured as expiants for varying periods of time, were transplanted into the striatum of rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway to examine the survival and functional properties of the sympathetic neurons maintained in long-term culture prior to grafting. In the rats given the SCG cultured in vitro for 2 weeks, apomorphine-induced rotational behaviour was satisfactory reduced. The rats receiving the SCG from 4-week-old cultures showed only modest behavioural changes. The grafting of the SCG cultured for 6 weeks in vitro did not affect the rotational behaviour. These behavioural data corresponded with the histological assessment of the graft survival by use of catecholamine histofluorescence. The present results suggest the critical time period in vitro which might allow the cultured sympathetic neurons to be successfully grafted.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Brain tumour ; chemotherapy ; induced hypertension ; xenon-enhanced CT
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Changes in tumour blood flow under an induced hypertensive state were examined in malignant brain tumours to know if the precondition for the effectiveness of induced hypertensive chemotherapy — relative increase in tumour blood flow — are fulfilled. Tumour blood flow was measured under both a resting and an induced hypertensive state in 12 patients with various malignant brain tumours (6 gliomas, 6 metastatic brain tumours) using xenon-enhanced computed tomography. The blood pressure was elevated 40% above the systemic blood pressure of the resting state by the infusion of angiotensin II. Tumour blood flow increased 30% on average above the normal brain tissue blood flow after the induction of an induced hypertensive state (p 〈 0.05). The tumour blood flow increased in 11 cases of malignant tumours, but decreased in one case with massive brain oedema after induced hypertension. The increase in blood flow was higher in hypervascular tumours and less in hypovascular tumours. Therefore, induced hypertensive chemotherapy probably will be more effective in hypervascular malignant brain tumours with small mass effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0911-6044
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Linguistics and Literary Studies , Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Alzheimer disease ; nucleus basalis of Meynert ; neural transplantation ; Hebb-Williams maze
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Current hypotheses regarding Alzheimer's disease implicate cholinergic function. In this study, peripheral cholinergic neurons in the vagal nodosal ganglion were transplanted into the brains of Alzheimer model rats. Eighteen Sprague-Dalwey strain rats were divided into three groups: 1) unoperated control rats, 2) rats that had undergone bilateral destruction of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) (Alzheimer model), and 3) the transplantation group in which the vagal nodosal ganglion was transplanted into the cerebral neocortex one week after the bilateral destruction of the Meynert nucleus. Seven weeks after the transplantation rat behaviour was assessed using psychological tests (spontaneous activitiy, passive avoidance response and the Hebb-Williams maze test). The Alzheimer model rats had a statistically significant increase in spontaneous activity in comparison with controls (P〈0.01). The transplant rats showed some amelioration of this abnormal increase in spontaneous activity observed in the Alzheimer model rats. All of the control rats showed conditioned passive avoidance responses, while only one Alzheimer model rat retained is shocked-conditions behaviour before 24 hours (P〈0.01). Three of the six transplanted rats showed complete improvement in the passive avoidance response test. In the Hebb-Williams maze test, the rats with NMB lesions made more errors than the control rats. The transplanted rats had a lower number of errors than NBM-lesioned rats but still more than the controls. Histological examination revealed many cholinergic cells in the transplanted tissue, especially in the area adjacent to the cerebral cortical surface. The present results indicate that autotransplantation of peripheral cholinergic cells ameliorates abnormal behaviour in Alzheimer model rats.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Angiogenic factor bFGF ; dural AVF
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Purpose Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are known to be acquired disorders. Angiogenic stimulants, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), may be involved in the evolution of this disorder. We examined the appearance and localization of bFGF, in human dAVF sinuses, versus a control using immunohistochemical techniques, to evaluate these qualitative differences. Patients and methods Four human dural sinuses from dAVF patients, and one control dural sinus were removed at surgery or autopsy and used for this study. Immunohistochemistry for bFGF was performed in all five specimens to identify its appearance and localization. Immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin, factor VIII related antigen, and macrophage (CD-68) were done in all tissues to identify the bFGF positive cell types. Results In the control dural sinus, there was negative staining by bFGF immunohistochemistry. However, in all four sinuses of the dAVF patients, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and meningeal cells were stained positively in various degrees by bFGF immunohistochemistry. Conclusion bFGF may be significant in the development of dAVFs, judging from its strong immunoreactivity in the sinuses of dAVF patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Balloon Matas test ; dynamic computerized tomography ; internal carotid artery occlusion ; giant aneurysm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery with a balloon atheter (balloon Matas test) and simultaneous dynamic computerized tomography scanning (DCT) were performed to determine the tolerance of permanent carotid occlusion in eight cerebral aneurysm and two carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) cases, in whom internal carotid occlusion might be necessary during operation or as a choice of treatment. All patients were evaluated by mean transit time (MTT), especially % transit time (MTT of the occluded side×100/MTT of the control side). In six patients, % transit time (%TT) was less than 155 and no neurological signs appeared after permanent internal carotid occlusion. Neurological deficit appeared when mean arterial blood pressure was 80, and disappeared when mean arterial blood pressure was 100 during the balloon Matas test in a case whose %TT was 200. Neurological deficit appeared several seconds after the balloon Matas test in a case whose %TT was 250. The critical %TT value to cause symptomatic ischaemia was 200 from our results. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake treatment such as bypass surgery for the patients whose %TT is near 200, even if the balloon Matas test was negative.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Arteriovenous malformation ; cyst ; CT scan ; pseudoaneurysm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors report on a rare case of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) associated with cyst formation. Only five similar cases have been reported. CT findings of the cyst are divided into two types: 1) slit-like low density and 2) round one. Three patients showing slit-like cysts had experienced sudden severe headaches, probably due to haemorrhage. In contrast, two patients showing round cystic lesions had not experienced such sudden headaches and they revealed a nodule in the cyst at surgery. These facts suggest that there may be two different mechanisms for cyst formation in AVM's: haemorrhage and exudation. Slit-like cysts may result from old haemorrhage from the AVM nidus. Round cystic lesions may be due to exudation from the AVM nidus.
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