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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPERIENCE ; COMPLICATIONS
    Abstract: PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that MRI-TRUS fusion technique can increase the detection rate of prostate cancer (PC) in patients with previously negative biopsy. METHODS: Patient records of men with persisting suspicion for PC after previous negative biopsy having undergone either extensive transrectal prostate biopsies (MD Anderson protocol; MDA), transperineal saturation (STP) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion transperineal biopsies (MTTP) in three consecutive time intervals were reviewed retrospectively. The respective approach was the standard for the above indication at these episodes. In Cambridge, 70 patients underwent MDA biopsies, 75 STP underwent biopsies and 74 patients underwent MTTP biopsies. In total, 164 MTTP patients with the same indication from Heidelberg were analysed as reference standard. In total, 383 men were included into analysis. Low-grade PC was defined as Gleason score 7 (3 + 4) or lower. RESULTS: Even though MTTP patients had significantly larger prostates, the overall cancer detection rate for PC was the highest in MTTP (24.2 % MDA, 41.3 % STP, 44.5 % MTTP, p = 0.027, Kruskal-Wallis test). The detection rate for clinically relevant high-grade PC was highest in MTTP; however, this did not reach statistical significance compared with MDA (23.5 % MDA, 12.9 % STP, 27.2 % MTTP, p = 0.25, Fischer's exact test). Comparing MTTP between Cambridge and Heidelberg, detection rates did not differ significantly (44.5 vs. 48 %, p = 0.58). There was a higher detection rate of high-grade cancer in Heidelberg. (36.3 vs. 27.2 %, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Patients whom are considered for repeat biopsies may benefit from undergoing MRI-targeted TRUS fusion technique due to higher cancer detection rate of significant PC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24917295
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  • 2
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the detection rates of targeted and systematic biopsies in magnetic resonance (MRI) and transrectal ultrasound (US) image-fusion transperineal prostate biopsy for patients with previous benign transrectal US guided biopsies in two high-volume centres. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two centre, prospective outcome study of 487 patients with previous benign biopsies that underwent transperineal MRI/US fusion-guided target and systematic saturation biopsy from 2012 to 2015. MRI was reported according to PIRADS Version 1. Detection of Gleason score (GS) 7-10 cancer (PCa) on biopsy was the primary outcome. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values including 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Detection rates of targeted and systematic biopsies were compared using McNemar's test. RESULTS: Median PSA was 9.0 (IQR 6.7-13.4) ng/ml. PIRADS 3-5 MRI lesions were reported in 343 (70%) patients. GS 7-10 PCa was detected in 149 (31%). PPV for detecting GS 7-10 PCa was 0.20 (+/-0.07) for PIRADS 3, 0.32 (+/-0.09) for PIRADS 4, and 0.70 (+/-0.08) for PIRADS 5. NPV of PIRADS 1-2 was 0.92 (+/-0.04) for GS 7-10 and 0.99 (+/-0.02) for GS 〉/= 4+3 cancer. Systematic biopsies alone found 125/138 (91%) GS 7-10 cancers. In patients with suspicious lesions (PIRADS 4-5) on MRI, systematic biopsies would not have detected 12/113 significant PCa (11%), while targeted biopsies alone would have failed to diagnose 10/113 (9%). In equivocal lesions (PIRADS 3), targeted biopsy alone would not have diagnosed 14/25 (56%) of GS 7-10, whereas systematic biopsies alone would have missed 1/25 (4%). Combination with PSA-density improved the AUC of PIRADS from 0.822 to 0.846. CONCLUSION: In patients with high probability MRI lesions, the highest detection rates of GS 7-10 cancer still required combined targeted and systematic MRI/TRUS image-fusion, however, systematic biopsy alone may be sufficient in patients with equivocal lesions. Repeated prostate biopsies may not be needed at all for patients with a low PSA-density and a negative MRI read by experienced radiologists. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27862869
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; SYSTEM ; SURGERY ; INTERNATIONAL-SOCIETY ; ACADEMIC MEDICAL-CENTERS ; APPROPRIATENESS
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To define terms and processes and agree on a minimum dataset in relation to transperineal prostate biopsy procedures and enhanced prostate diagnostics. To identify the need for further evaluation and establish a collaborative research practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 19-member multidisciplinary panel rated 66 items for their appropriateness and their definition to be incorporated into the international databank using the Research and Development/University of California Los Angeles Appropriateness Method. The item list was developed from interviews conducted with healthcare professionals from urology, radiology, pathology and engineering. RESULTS: The panel agreed on 56 items that were appropriate to be incorporated into a prospective database. In total, 10 items were uncertain and were omitted. These items were within the categories: definitions (n = 2), imaging (n = 1), surgical protocols (n = 2) and histology (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS: The components of a minimum dataset for transperineal prostate biopsy have been defined. This provides an opportunity for multicentre collaborative data analysis and technique development. The findings of the present study will facilitate prospective studies into the application and outcome of transperineal prostate biopsies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23773772
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0277-5387
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2621
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In order to determine the optimum method for extraction of the entire flavour profile of sausages, three extraction techniques, solvent extraction (SE), purge and trap (PT), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), were compared. Similarly, to effectively analyse the volatile compounds of low-fat (〈3%) and regular-fat (approximately 15%) sausages, three isolation techniques were investigated and gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used for final identification of compounds. A total of thirty-three volatile compounds were identified in the sausages by SDE, twelve by SE, and nine by PT. In the SE method, fats interfered in the extraction of some volatile components, resulting in lower recovery and longer isolation time when compared with the other two methods. The PT method might not be a good extraction method because of the loss of heterocyclic compounds. However, the SDE method showed greater yields and recognized more volatiles when compared with SE. Furfural, trans-caryophyllene, and myristicine were the predominant volatile compounds extracted by SDE. These results suggest that the SDE method is the most efficient method in isolating volatile compounds in both regular- and low-fat sausages. The amounts of volatile compounds, such as, 4-acethyl-3-methyl pyrazole, 1,4-dimethyl benzene, p-ethylguaiacol and β-caryophyllene were higher in regular-fat sausages; however, the amounts of myristicine and hexadecanoic acid were higher in low-fat sausages.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 79 (2001), S. 785-787 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: N-type ZnTe layers with high electron concentration are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy using aluminum as the donor species. The ZnTe:Al layers show a high structural quality with a narrow x-ray diffraction linewidth (24 arcsec) and a high carrier concentration up to n=4×1018 cm−3 with low resistivity (ρ=0.017 Ω cm). The dependence of the electron mobility on the carrier concentration suggests that the dominant scattering mechanisms in the ZnTe:Al layers are ionized impurity scattering and polar optical phonon scattering. The photoluminescence spectrum of moderately doped ZnTe layers shows strong Al–donor-related bound exciton lines: I2 (2.378 eV) and donor–acceptor pair emission (zero phonon energy=2.324 eV) with a weak deep-level emission (2.19 eV). Highly Al-doped layers show an increase in the deep-level emission intensity and a decrease in carrier mobility, which are interpreted in terms of the increase in the carrier compensation. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 56 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Moisture, total fat and cholesterol of goat liver, kidney, heart, Longissimus dorsi (LD) and Biceps femoris (BF) muscles were determined. Samples were taken from 10 Alpine and 10 Nubian post-weaned goat kids that were fed a complete diet treated with 4 levels of Ca for 12 wk before slaughter. Mean moisture (%), total fat (%) and cholesterol (mg/100g wet tissue) for the respective tissues were: 75.9, 3.26, 214.2; 82.0, 3.14, 276.7; 79.2, 4.32,167.5; 79.2, 2.27, 57.8; 80.4, 2.03, 69.5. These goats contained less cholesterol in liver and more cholesterol in kidney and heart than the same organs in mutton samples reported previously. Fat and cholesterol were significantly (P 〈 0.01) influenced by dietary Ca, breed and tissue, while moisture was affected only by tissue.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : The combined influence of preheat treatment, mixing with various proteins, and the addition of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) on the physicochemical properties of bovine collagen-peptide (BCP) gel was investigated. The preheat treatment and the mixing with various proteins contributed to the enhancement of the gel strength and polymerization of BCP. The gel made with 0.1% MTGase showed the highest breaking strength. The melting point of the preheated BCP gel was higher than that of the unheated one (P 〈 0.05). The gel made with a combination of preheated BCP-casein or preheated BCP-soybean protein showed a higher melting point than that made with preheated BCP alone (P 〈 0.05). The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) pattern of the mixture of preheated BCP with casein or soybean protein showed that the protein bands with relatively low molecular weights disappeared and the bands with relatively high molecular weights increased. Observation by a scanning electron microscope revealed that the preheated BCP gel prepared with MTGase had a well-defined cross-linked network and showed some clumps of aggregated proteins. These results show that preheating, mixing with other proteins and MTGase treatment, are effective ways to make BCP a fine biopolymer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A CoSi2 buffer layer was prepared in polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) plug for preventing an undesired microvoid between the polysilicon plug and Ir/Ti diffusion barrier. Since the microvoid generates random function fail, resulting in low wafer yield of a 4 Mb ferroelectric random access memory device, we developed the thermally stable CoSi2 buffer layer for eliminating the random single bit fails. The ferroelectric capacitors using the CoSi2 buffer layer showed a low contact resistance of 96 Ω per contact in 1k serial contact array with contact size of 0.6 μm, and also exhibited great ferroelectric properties such as remnant polarization and coercive voltage of 20 μC/cm2 and 1.2 V, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed that no microvoid was formed between the interface between the Ir/Ti barrier layer and the CoSi2 buffer layer. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 79 (2001), S. 4331-4333 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present the results of the formation of the InAs quantum dots (QDs) on the (100) In1−xAlxAs(InAlAs)/InP substrate by using relaxed InAlAs buffer layers with different compositions. Variations of surface morphology of InAs QDs as a function of InAs–InAlAs lattice mismatch have been evaluated by atomic force microscopy. When the lattice mismatch increases from 2.4% to 4.2%, the size of QDs decreases, and the density of QDs increases. Each of these dependences can be fitted to a power function of the misfit unless the Al diffusion, roughness of the buffer layer, and/or the ripening of small dots modify the size and density.© 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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