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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; kidney ; MECHANISM ; RAT ; RATS ; mechanisms ; BIOLOGY ; TRANSPORT ; PROGRESSION ; gene expression ; DIFFERENCE ; NUMBER ; STRESS ; genetics ; RATES ; US ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; SUPEROXIDE ; heredity ; RENAL-FAILURE ; molecular ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISM ; RE ; genomics ; cell proliferation ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISMS ; LEVEL ; HORMONES ; female ; Male ; NCBI ; genomic ; microbiology ; biotechnology ; GENDER-DIFFERENCES
    Abstract: Background: Post-puberty deterioration of kidneys is more rapid in males than in females. To reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms for this difference, we analyzed gender-dependent gene expression in kidneys of three groups of 36 day-old rats. Results: The number of genes exhibiting gender-dependent expression was highly influenced by the genetic background of the rat group examined. 373, 288 and 79 genes showed differential gene expression between males and females (p = 0.001) in US, Mhm and Mhm* BN rats, respectively. Of all gender dependently expressed genes, only 39 genes were differentially expressed in all tested groups and the direction of expression change was the same for those genes for all groups. The gene expression profile suggests higher metabolic and transport activities, enhanced cell proliferation, elevated oxidative stress, and altered vascular biology in males. Furthermore, elevated levels of superoxide anion (two-to three-fold) in males compared to females were detected at early puberty, but neither at pre-puberty nor at late puberty/early adulthood. Conclusion: Our data suggest that early puberty, with gender-related elevation in oxidative stress in males, is a key compromising factor on kidneys in males
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17620128
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  • 2
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; AGENTS ; IN-VIVO ; PERFUSION ; THERAPY ; CT ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; liver ; TISSUE ; MRI ; CATHETER ; embolization ; X-RAY ; ARTERIOVENOUS-MALFORMATIONS ; MICROSPHERES ; ARTERY EMBOLIZATION ; ENDOVASCULAR EMBOLIZATION ; multimodal ; THERAPEUTIC EMBOLIZATION ; UTERINE FIBROID EMBOLIZATION
    Abstract: Objectives: Embolization therapy is gaining importance in the treatment of malignant lesions, and even more in benign lesions. Current embolization materials are not visible in imaging modalities. However, it is assumed that directly visible embolization material may provide several advantages over current embolization agents, ranging from particle shunt and reflux prevention to improved therapy control and follow-up assessment. X-ray-as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible embolization materials have been demonstrated in experiments. In this study, we present an embolization material with the property of being visible in more than one imaging modality, namely MRI and x-ray/computed tomography (CT). Characterization and testing of the substance in animal models was performed. Materials and Methods: To reduce the chance of adverse reactions and to facilitate clinical approval, materials have been applied that are similar to those that are approved and being used on a routine basis in diagnostic imaging. Therefore, x-ray-visible Iodine was combined with MRI-visible Iron (Fe3O4) in a macroparticle (diameter, 40-200 mu m). Its core, consisting of a copolymerized monomer MAOETIB (2-methacryloyloxyethyl [2,3,5-triiodobenzoate]), was coated with ultra-small paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (150 nm). After in vitro testing, including signal to noise measurements in CT and MRI (n = 5), its ability to embolize tissue was tested in an established tumor embolization model in rabbits (n = 6). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) (Integris, Philips), CT (Definition, Siemens Healthcare Section, Forchheim, Germany), and MRI (3 Tesla Magnetom Tim Trio MRI, Siemens Healthcare Section, Forchheim, Germany) were performed before, during, and after embolization. Imaging signal changes that could be attributed to embolization particles were assessed by visual inspection and rated on an ordinal scale by 3 radiologists, from 1 to 3. Histologic analysis of organs was performed. Results: Particles provided a sufficient image contrast on DSA, CT (signal to noise [SNR], 13 +/- 2.5), and MRI (SNR, 35 +/- 1) in in vitro scans. Successful embolization of renal tissue was confirmed by catheter angiography, revealing at least partial perfusion stop in all kidneys. Signal changes that were attributed to particles residing within the kidney were found in all cases in all the 3 imaging modalities. Localization distribution of particles corresponded well in all imaging modalities. Dynamic imaging during embolization provided real-time monitoring of the inflow of embolization particles within DSA, CT, and MRI. Histologic visualization of the residing particles as well as associated thrombosis in renal arteries could be performed. Visual assessment of the likelihood of embolization particle presence received full rating scores (153/153) after embolization. Conclusions: Multimodal-visible embolization particles have been developed, characterized, and tested in vivo in an animal model. Their implementation in clinical radiology may provide optimization of embolization procedures with regard to prevention of particle misplacement and direct intraprocedural visualization, at the same time improving follow-up examinations by utilizing the complementary characteristics of CT and MRI. Radiation dose savings can also be considered. All these advantages could contribute to future refinements and improvements in embolization therapy. Additionally, new approaches in embolization research may open up
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21263332
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; PERFUSION ; GENERATION ; liver ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; SURGERY ; NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE ; NITRIC-OXIDE ; HEPATIC MICROCIRCULATION ; IMPACT ; MICROCIRCULATION ; RAT ; animals ; RATS ; hepatocytes ; treatment ; CARBON ; NO ; RAT-LIVER ; immunohistochemistry ; gene expression ; RT-PCR ; ENDOTOXEMIA ; ISCHEMIA ; SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS ; ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY ; INJURY ; REPERFUSION INJURY ; CIRRHOSIS ; RE ; INCREASE ; SYNTHASE ; regulation ; IMPAIRMENT ; LEVEL ; methods ; Male ; nitric oxide ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELL ; animal ; DEGENERATION ; endothelin ; STEADY-STATE ; hepatic ; stellate cells ; ENDOTHELIN-1 ; FATTY LIVER ; HEPATIC TISSUE OXYGENATION ; ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION ; steatosis
    Abstract: Background: Impaired hepatic microcirculation in the steatotic liver has been identified as a considerable factor for increased vulnerability after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Changes in regulation and synthesis of vasoactive mediators, such as nitric oxide ( NO) and endothelin (ET-1), may result in functional impairment of postischemic sinusoidal perfusion. The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of I/R injury on postischemic gene expression of NO and ET-1 in steatotic livers. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats with or without hepatic steatosis ( induced by carbon tetrachloride treatment) were subjected to normothermic I/R injury. Steady-state mRNA levels were assessed using RT-PCR to study the expression of genes encoding ET-1, NO synthase ( endothelial cell NO synthase and inducible NO synthase, iNOS). Immunohistochemistry was performed for detection of iNOS. Results: I/R injury was followed by increased iNOS gene expression (RT-PCR/immunohistochemistry) in animals with hepatic steatosis, predominately in hepatocytes with fatty degeneration. A mild increase in mRNA levels for ET-1 was found in steatotic rat livers. I/R induced a further increase in ET-1 gene expression in some but not all reperfused steatotic livers. Conclusions: We show an enhanced gene expression of iNOS in postischemic steatotic rat livers. Hepatocytes with fatty degeneration appear to be the major source for NO generation. Furthermore, I/R may also induce ET-1 gene expression. Dysregulation of sinusoidal perfusion by NO and ET-1 is therefore likely to contribute to I/R injury of the steatotic liver. Copyright c 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17595544
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  • 4
    Keywords: MACROPHAGES ; ATHEROSCLEROSIS ; DEFICIENT MICE ; NUCLEAR RECEPTORS ; xanthine oxidoreductase ; DIABETIC-NEPHROPATHY ; LXR-ALPHA ; FOAM CELL-FORMATION ; MODIFIED LIPOPROTEINS ; INHIBITS DEVELOPMENT
    Abstract: Dyslipidemia is a frequent component of the metabolic disorder of diabetic patients contributing to organ damage. Herein, in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient hyperlipidemic and streptozotozin-induced diabetic mice, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia acted reciprocally, accentuating renal injury and altering renal function. In hyperglycemic-hyperlipidemic kidneys, the accumulation of Tip47-positive lipid droplets in glomeruli, tubular epithelia, and macrophages was accompanied by the concomitant presence of the oxidative stress markers xanthine oxidoreductase and nitrotyrosine, findings that could also be evidenced in renal biopsy samples of diabetic patients. As liver X receptors (LXR alpha,beta) regulate genes linked to lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis and inhibit inflammatory gene expression in macrophages, the effects of systemic and macrophage-specific LXR activation were analyzed on renal damage in hyperlipidemic-hyperglycemic mice. LXR stimulation by GW3965 up-regulated genes involved in cholesterol efflux and down-regulated proinflammatory/profibrotic cytokines, inhibiting the pathomorphology of diabetic nephropathy, renal lipid accumulation, and improving renal function. Xanthine oxidoreductase and nitrotyrosine levels were reduced. In macrophages, GW3965 or LXR alpha overexpression significantly suppressed glycated or acetylated low-density lipoprotein-induced cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Specifically, in mice, transgenic expression of LXR alpha in macrophages significantly ameliorated hypertipidemic-hyperglycemic nephropathy. The results demonstrate the presence of lipid droplet-induced oxidative mechanisms and the pathophysiologic role of macrophages in diabetic kidneys and indicate the potent regulatory role of LXRs in preventing renal damage in diabetes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23318573
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  • 5
    Abstract: It has been suggested that the behavior and function of Paneth cells in metaplasia are different from those found in normal intestinal mucosa. In this study, we investigated whether calnexin, a protein involved in secretory pathways, might be associated with differentiation and function of Paneth cells in normal small intestine, in complete intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, and in Paneth cell-rich adenomas. Differentiation and function of Paneth cells was monitored by Ki67, lysozyme, and morphologic features. Using a newly established monoclonal antibody, we found that calnexin is regularly synthesized by Paneth cells of normal small intestine. In these cells, the staining intensity of calnexin was inversely correlated with their content of secretory granules (lysozyme). In contrast, Paneth cells of intestinal metaplasia and Paneth cell-rich adenomas showed a reduced immunostaining of both calnexin and lysozyme. Moreover, these Paneth cells synthesized the proliferation marker Ki67, a phenomenon that was never observed in Paneth cells of normal small intestine. In vitro experiments using CaCo2 cells showed that the expression of calnexin is not directly affected by the induction of mitosis. In conclusion, calnexin probably reflects the status of Paneth cell differentiation and function. The results do not necessarily indicate that calnexin has a function in Paneth cell proliferation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12480915
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  • 6
    Keywords: CELL-PROLIFERATION ; MODEL ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; CATECHOL-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE ; RENAL-DISEASE ; PHYTOESTROGEN CONTENT ; SEVERITY ; SIGNAL-REGULATED KINASE ; TUBULOINTERSTITIAL FIBROSIS ; QUANTITATIVE TRAIT
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common human inherited diseases. Modifier genes seem to modulate the disease progression and might therefore be promising drug targets. Although a number of modifier loci have been already identified, no modifier gene has been proven to be a real modifier yet. METHODS: Gene expression profiling of two substrains of the Han:SPRD rat, namely PKD/Mhm and PKD/US, both harboring the same mutation, was conducted in 36-day-old animals. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt) was identified as a potential modifier gene. A 3-month treatment with tolcapone, a selective inhibitor of Comt, was carried out in PKD/Mhm and PKD/US (cy/+) animals. RESULTS: Comt is localized within a known modifier locus of PKD (MOP2). The enzyme encoding gene was found upregulated in the more severely affected PKD/Mhm substrain and was hence presumed to be a putative modifier gene of PKD. The treatment with tolcapone markedly attenuated the loss of renal function, inhibited renal enlargement, shifted the size distribution of renal cysts and retarded cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis development in affected (cy/+) male and female PKD/Mhm and PKD/US rats. CONCLUSIONS: Comt has been confirmed to be the first reported modifier gene for PKD and tolcapone offers a promising drug for treating PKD.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23543593
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-9813
    Keywords: Key words Hepatobiliary dysfunction ; Total parenteral nutrition ; Infants ; Experimental model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We analyzed clinical, biochemical, and histo- logic parameters of ten infants with parenteral nutrition-induced hepatobiliary dysfunction. The data were compared with the results of a rabbit model. All infants were born prematurely with low birth weight. Their clinical diagnoses were necrotizing enterocolitis (6), gastroschisis (1), intrauterine volvulus (1), and lung hypoplasia (2). All required total (TPN) or partial parenteral nutrition for at least 8 weeks. All had repeated episodes of infections or sepsis. A rise in bilirubin and aminotransferase levels occurred after a minimum of 5 weeks; peak bilirubin levels ranged from 4 to 14 mg% and aminotransferases from 40 to 140 IU/l. One child later developed gallstones. Liver biopsies after 1 to 24 months showed fibrosis, bile-duct proliferation, cholestasis, and hydropic degeneration. All of the above-mentioned clinical factors have been accused of causing the observed biochemical and histologic changes. In our rabbit model we were able to produce almost identical symptoms by TPN alone: gallbladder distension, sludge, and stones developed after 1–4 weeks of TPN as well as uncharacteristic changes in aminotransferases and bilirubin after 4 weeks. Liver histology revealed severe hydropic degeneration of zone 3 as early as 1 week after beginning TPN. A rise of fibrosis and bile-duct proliferation after 1 to 4 weeks of infusion was statistically significant. Cholestasis, as was observed in the infants, could not be detected. In our model, all alterations observed could be attributed exclusively to TPN. We therefore assume that TPN was the true cause of the dysfunction. In a second experimental series infusions were reduced to 80% PN and free access to lab chow. These animals produced normal feces, indicating physiologic enteral stimulation. They developed the same degenerative and proliferative histologic changes, whereas gallbladder distension, sludge, and stones were not noted. We conclude that: (1) The TPN solution itself is responsible for the histologic changes in the liver, which is supported by the fact that hydropic degeneration of zone 3 is typical of a direct toxic effect; and (2) Complete enteral starvation with an absence of enteral stimulation causes disease of the lower biliary tract.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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