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  • 1
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Consider the construction of an expert system by encoding the knowledge of different experts. Suppose the knowledge provided by each expert is encoded into a knowledge base. Then the process of combining the knowledge of these different experts is an important and nontrivial problem. We study this problem here when the expert systems are considered to be first-order theories. We present techniques for resolving inconsistencies in such knowledge bases. We also provide algorithms for implementing these techniques.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148 , USA : Blackwell Publishing
    Computational intelligence 19 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: In this article, we propose a strategic negotiation model that enables self-motivated rational agents to share resources. The strategic negotiation model takes the passage of time during the negotiation process itself into account. The model considers bilateral negotiations in situations characterized by complete information, in which one agent loses over time whereas the other gains over time. Using this negotiation mechanism, autonomous agents apply simple and stable negotiation strategies that result in efficient agreements without delay, even when there are dynamic changes in the environment. Simulation results show that our mechanism performs as well as a centralized scheduler and also has the property of balancing the resources' usage.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7470
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Focal points refer to prominent solutions of an interaction, solutions to which agents are drawn. This paper considers how automated agents could use focal points for coordination in communication‐impoverished situations. Coordination is a central theme of Distributed Artificial Intelligence. Much work in this field can be seen as a search for mechanisms that allow agents with differing knowledge and goals to coordinate their actions for mutual benefit. Additionally, one of the main assumptions of the field is that communication is expensive relative to computation. Thus, coordination techniques that minimize communication are of particular importance. Our purpose in this paper is to consider how to model the process of finding focal points from domain‐independent criteria, under the assumption that agents cannot communicate with one another. We consider two alternative approaches for finding focal points, one based on decision theory, the second on step‐logic. The first provides for a more natural integration of agent utilities, while the second more successfully models the difficulty of finding solutions. For both cases, we present simulations over randomly generated domains that suggest that focal points can act as an effective heuristic for coordination.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7454
    Keywords: logics of knowledge and beliefs ; bounded agents ; real-time reasoning ; multiple agents
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract We describe a meta-logic for characterizing the evolving internal reasoning of various families of agents. We view the reasoning of agents as ongoing processes rather than as fixed sets of conclusions. Our approach utilizes a strongly sorted calculus, distinguishing the application language, time, and various syntactic sorts. We have established soundness and completeness results corresponding to various families of agents. This allows for useful and intuitively natural characterizations of such agents' reasoning abilities. We discuss and contrast consistency issues as in the work of Montague and Thomason. We also show how to represent the concept of focus of attention in this framework.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Boston, USA and Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishers Inc
    Computational intelligence 15 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Cooperating and sharing resources by creating coalitions of agents are important ways for autonomous agents to execute tasks and to maximize payoff. Such coalitions will form only if each member of a coalition gains more by joining the coalition than it could gain otherwise. There are several ways of creating such coalitions and dividing the joint payoff among the members. In this paper we present algorithms for coalition formation and payoff distribution in nonsuperadditive environments. We focus on a low-complexity kernel-oriented coalition formation algorithm. The properties of this algorithm were examined via simulations. These have shown that the model increases the benefits of the agents within a reasonable time period, and more coalition formations provide more benefits to the agents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Computational intelligence 11 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Negotiations are very important in a multiagenl environment, particularly, in an environment where there are conflicts between the agents, and cooperation would be beneficial. We have developed a general structure for a Negotiating Automated Agent that consists of five modules: a Prime Minister, a Ministry of Defense, a Foreign Office, a Headquarters and Intelligence. These modules are implemented using a dynamic set of local agents belonging to the different modules. We used this structure to develop a Diplomacy player. Diplomat. Playing Diplomacy involves a certain amount of technical skills as in other board games, but the capacity to negotiate, explain, convince, promise, keep promises or break them, is an essential ingredient in good play. Diplomat was evaluated and consistently played better than human players.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7470
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In negotiations among autonomous agents over resource allocation, beliefs about opponents, and about opponents’ beliefs, become particularly important when there is incomplete information. This paper considers interactions among self‐motivated, rational, and autonomous agents, each with its own utility function, and each seeking to maximize its expected utility. The paper expands upon previous work and focuses on incomplete information and multiple encounters among the agents. It presents a strategic model that takes into consideration the passage of time during the negotiation and also includes belief systems. The paper provides strategies for a wide range of situations. The framework satisfies the following criteria: symmetrical distribution, simplicity, instantaneously, efficiency and stability.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-8730
    Keywords: Algebraic logic ; equivalence of data bases ; description of states of data bases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Philosophy
    Notes: Abstract The paper is devoted to applications of algebraic logic to databases. In databases a query is represented by a formula of first order logic. The same query can be associated with different formulas. Thus, a query is a class of equivalent formulae: equivalence here being similar to that in the transition to the Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra. An algebra of queries is identified with the corresponding algebra of logic. An algebra of replies to the queries is also associated with algebraic logic. These relations lie at the core of the applications. In this paper it is shown how the theory of Halmos (polyadic) algebras (a notion introduced by Halmos as a tool in the algebraization of the first order predicate calculus) is used to create the algebraic model of a relational data base. The model allows us, in particular, to solve the problem of databases equivalence as well as develop a formal algebraic definition of a database's state description. In this paper we use the term "state description" for the logical description of the model. This description is based on the notion of filters in Halmos algebras. When speaking of a state description, we mean the description of a function which realizes the symbols of relations as real relations in the given system of data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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