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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) functions to maintain neuronal morphology by promoting the assembly of microtubules. MAP-2c is an alternately spliced form of MAP-2, containing the first 151 amino acids of high-molecular-weight (HMW) MAP-2 joined to the last 321 amino acids, eliminating 1,352 amino acids specific to HMW MAP-2. A polyclonal antibody generated to the splice site of human MAP-2c was used to determine its cellular localization. The MAP-2c antiserum was depleted of any HMW MAP-2 reactivity by absorption with HMW MAP-2 fusion protein. Western blot analysis of human fetal spinal cord homogenates demonstrated that the antibody is specific for human MAP-2c. MAP-2c immunoreactivity was found in the perinuclear cytoplasm and processes of anterior motor neurons and large processes of the posterior column in sections from 22–24-week human fetal spinal cord. Double-label confocal microscopy was performed using the MAP-2c polyclonal antibody and either a HMW MAP-2 or a neurofilament protein (highly phosphorylated 160- and 200-kDa protein) monoclonal antibody to identify these processes as dendrites or axons, respectively. HMW MAP-2 and MAP-2c colocalized in cell bodies and dendrites of anterior motor neurons, demonstrating for the first time the presence of native MAP-2c within dendrites. In addition, immunoelectron microscopy showed MAP-2c associated with microtubules in dendrites of motor neurons. MAP-2c and the neurofilament proteins were found in axons of the dorsal and ventral roots. The presence of MAP-2c within axons and dendrites suggests that MAP-2c contributes to neuronal plasticity during human fetal development.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Neurofibrillary tangles are composed of insoluble aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau. In Alzheimer's disease the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles occurs in the absence of tau mutations. Here we present mice that develop pathology from non-mutant human tau, in the absence of other exogenous factors, including β-amyloid. The pathology in these mice is Alzheimer-like, with hyperphosphorylated tau accumulating as aggregated paired helical filaments. This pathologic tau accumulates in the cell bodies and dendrites of neurons in a spatiotemporally relevant distribution.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: In human fetal spinal cord (HFSC), six additional microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) transcripts are generated by alternative splicing of two recently described exons, exon 8 and exon 13. The following three translated proteins are detected by western blot analysis: MAP-2b expressing exon 8 (MAP-2b+8; MAP-2a), MAP-2b expressing exon 13 (MAP-2b+13), and MAP-2c expressing exon 8 and exon 13 (MAP-2c+8+13). The finding that MAP-2b+8 is expressed in HFSC demonstrates for the first time the presence of MAP-2a in human fetal CNS. Immunocytochemical studies show that exon 8-specific antibody and exon 13-specific antibody stain independent and overlapping populations of neurons in the lumbar region of the HFSC. Antibody 13-immunopositive neurons have predominantly cytosolic staining, whereas in the antibody 8-immunoreactive neurons staining was observed in the cytosol, dendrites, and some synapses. The prenatal expression of MAP-2a, which has been used as a marker of synaptogenesis, not only demonstrates the presence of a mature MAP-2 isoform in HFSC, but suggests that MAP-2a is important during human fetal as well as postnatal synaptogenesis.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 257 (1975), S. 394-396 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Tulahuen and Ernestina strains of T. cruzi were supplied by Dr Franklin Neva of the National Institutes of Health, and cultured as described previously6. Normal macrophages were collected from the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/10.D2 mice by lavage with ice-cold Hanks' solution containing 5 IU ml-1 ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule-associated protein 2 ; neurons ; microtubule-associated proteins ; cytoskeleton ; dendrites ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) is an abundant component of the cytoskeleton present in dendrites and cell bodies of neurons of the CNS. To examine the biological function of MAP-2, two MAP-2 antisense (AS) oligonucleotides complementary to the 5′ region of the rat MAP-2 cDNA were added to rat primary embryonic day 17-18 (E17-18) cultured cortical neurons 24 h after plating and neurite outgrowth and morphology studied. The treatment of primary cortical cultures with either of the two MAP-2 AS oligonucleotides resulted in decreased MAP-2 and reduction in the number of neuritic processes relative to the control or MAP-2 sense-treated cultures. By immunostaining and light microscopy the AS-treated neurons appeared smaller, more rounded, and less intensely stained for MAP-2 than the untreated or the MAP-2 sense-treated cultures. By electron microscopy disorganized microtubules and a reduction in the number of microtubules within neurites of the AS-treated cultures were observed. We conclude that MAP-2 continues to be required for microtubule spacing and stability within neurites once they have formed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract : Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the regeneration of oligodendrocytes and remyelination is a central issue in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. We recently identified a novel alternatively spliced, developmentally regulated oligodendrocyte-specific protein designated microtubule-associated protein-2+13 [microtubule-associated protein-2 expressing exon 13 (MAP-2+13)]. MAP-2+13 is expressed in human fetal oligodendrocytes during process extension and myelination but is minimally expressed in normal mature CNS. To test the hypothesis that MAP-2+13 is reexpressed in regenerating oligodendrocytes in MS lesions, we examined the brains of MS patients for the expression of this protein. By immunocytochemistry using a series of monoclonal antibodies specific for MAP-2+13, we determined that MAP-2+13 expression was up-regulated in all 31 lesions from 10 different MS brains. MAP-2+13 was expressed in regenerating oligodendrocytes associated with demyelinated lesions, with the highest counts found in regions of extensive remyelination. By electron microscopy, MAP-2+13 was localized to oligodendrocytes engaged in remyelination, evident by their process extension and association with thinly myelinated (remyelinated) and demyelinated axons. These results suggest a hitherto unsuspected role for this microtubule-associated protein in oligodendrocyte function during development and myelin repair.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The expression of high-molecular-weight (HMW) microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) expressing exon 8 (MAP-2+8) was examined by immunoblotting during rat brain development and in sections of human CNS. In rat brain, HMW MAP-2+8 expression was detected at embryonic day 21 and increased during postnatal development. In adult rats, HMW MAP-2+8 comigrated with MAP-2a. In human adult brain, HMW MAP-2+8 was expressed in select neuronal populations, including pyramidal neurons of layers III and V of the neocortex and parahippocampal cortex, pyramidal neurons in the endplate, CA2 and subiculum of the hippocampus, and the medium-sized neurons of the basal ganglia. In the cerebellum, a subpopulation of Golgi neurons in the internal granular cell layer and most Purkinje cells were also stained. In the spinal cord staining was observed in large neurons of the anterior horn. Staining was present in cell bodies and dendrites but not in axons. At the ultra-structural level, HMW MAP-2+8 immunoreactivity was observed on mitochondrial membranes and in postsynaptic densities (PSDs) of some asymmetric synapses in the midfrontal cortex and spinal cord. Immunoblots of proteins isolated from enriched mitochondrial and PSD fractions from adult human frontal lobe and rat brains confirmed the presence of HMW MAP-2+8. The presence of HMW MAP-2+8 in dendrites and in close proximity to PSDs supports a role in structural and functional attributes of select excitatory CNS synapses.
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