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  • 1
    Keywords: brain ; EXPRESSION ; MODEL ; MODELS ; SYSTEM ; COHORT ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; transcription ; DRUG ; MICE ; RESPONSES ; MECHANISM ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; RATS ; mechanisms ; BINDING ; ALPHA ; CREB ; ELEMENT ; ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN ; ISOFORM ; MUTANT ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; NO ; TARGETED MUTATION ; DECREASE ; STRESS ; MUTATION ; MODULATION ; REGION ; REGIONS ; Jun ; INVOLVEMENT ; BEHAVIOR ; FOOD ; LACKING ; BINDING PROTEIN ; molecular ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISM ; DEPENDENCE ; NEURONS ; KNOCKOUT MICE ; ADDICTION ; CERULEUS ; conditioned place preference ; emotional behavior ; locus coeruleus ; LOCUS-COERULEUS NEURONS ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISMS ; NEURAL PLASTICITY ; opiate addiction ; OPIATE-WITHDRAWAL
    Abstract: The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) has been shown to regulate different physiological responses including drug addiction and emotional behavior. Molecular changes including adaptive modifications of the transcription factor CREB are produced during drug dependence in many regions of the brain, including the locus coeruleus (LC), but the molecular mechanisms involving CREB within these regions have remained controversial. To further investigate the involvement of CREB in emotional behavior, drug reward and opioid physical dependence, we used two independently generated CREB-deficient mice. We employed the Cre/loxP system to generate mice with a conditional CREB mutation restricted to the nervous system, where all CREB isoforms are lacking in the brain (Creb / (NesCre)). A genetically defined cohort of the previously described hypomorphic Creb / (alphaDelta) mice, in which the two major transcriptionally active isoforms (alpha and Delta) are disrupted throughout the organism, were also used. First, we investigated the responses to stress of the CREB-deficient mice in several paradigms, and we found an increased anxiogenic-like response in the both Creb / mutant mice in different behavioral models. We investigated the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse (cocaine and morphine) and natural reward (food) using the conditioned place-preference paradigm. No modification of motivational responses of morphine, cocaine, or food was observed in mutant mice. Finally, we evaluated opioid dependence by measuring the behavioral expression of morphine withdrawal and electrophysiological recordings of LC neurons. We showed an important attenuation of the behavioral expression of abstinence and a decrease in the hyperactivity of LC neurons in both Creb / mutant mice. Our results emphasize the selective role played by neuronal CREB in emotional-like behavior and the somatic expression morphine withdrawal, without participating in the rewarding properties induced by morphine and cocaine
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15029152
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; MICROSCOPY ; VITRO ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TISSUE ; ACTIVATION ; kidney ; FAMILY ; DOMAIN ; MOUSE ; Drosophila ; MEMBRANE ; NUMBER ; LINE ; SUPERFAMILY ; Jun ; INVOLVEMENT ; OVEREXPRESSION ; HEALTHY ; ORGANIZATION ; electron microscopy ; BINDS ; INHIBITORS ; ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY ; interaction ; MT1-MMP ; MYOBLAST FUSION ; NEPHROTIC SYNDROME
    Abstract: The NEPH family comprises three transmembrane proteins of the Ig superfamily interacting with the glomerular slit diaphragm proteins podocin and ZO-1. NEPH1 binds to nephrin, another component of the slit diaphragm, and loss of either partner causes heavy proteinuria. NEPH2, which is strongly conserved among a large number of species, is also expressed in the kidney; however, its function is unknown. The authors raised NEPH2 antisera. to demonstrate NEPH2 expression in a variety of mouse tissues, including the kidney and a podocyte cell line. The authors localized the expression of NEPH2 to the glomerular slit diaphragm by electron microscopy and show NEPH2 homodimerization and specific interactions with the extracellular domain of nephrin in vitro and in vivo. NEPH1, however, failed to interact with NEPH2. The authors detected immunoreactive NEPH2 in urine of healthy subjects, suggesting that the extracellular domain is cleaved under physiologic conditions. These findings were confirmed in vitro in podocyte cell. culture. Shedding is increased by tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors and diminished by GM6001, an inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Overexpression experiments indicate an involvement of the MT1-matrix metalloproteinase. The results suggest a role for NEPH2 in the organization and/or maintenance of the glomerular slit diaphragm that may differ from the functions of NEPH1 and nephrin
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15843475
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  • 3
    Abstract: Biological rhythms are driven in mammals by a central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Light-induced phase shifting of this clock is correlated with phosphorylation of CREB at Ser133 in the SCN. Here, we characterize phosphorylation of CREB at Ser142 and describe its contribution to the entrainment of the clock. In the SCN, light and glutamate strongly induce CREB Ser142 phosphorylation. To determine the physiological relevance of phosphorylation at Ser142, we generated a mouse mutant, CREB(S142A), lacking this phosphorylation site. Light-induced phase shifts of locomotion and expression of c-Fos and mPer1 in the SCN are significantly attenuated in CREB(S142A) mutants. Our findings provide genetic evidence that CREB Ser142 phosphorylation is involved in the entrainment of the mammalian clock and reveal a novel phosphorylation-dependent regulation of CREB activity.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 11970866
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  • 4
    Keywords: brain ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; Germany ; DENSITY ; SYSTEM ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; transcription ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; DELETION ; MOUSE ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; LIM-KINASE ; CELL-MIGRATION ; ACTIN CYTOSKELETON ; TARGET GENE ; TERNARY COMPLEX ; ACTIN DYNAMICS ; C-FOS PROMOTER ; cell migration ; cofilin ; FOREBRAIN ; SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR ; SRF ; TARGET GENES
    Abstract: The central nervous system is fundamentally dependent on guided cell migration, both during development and in adulthood. We report an absolute requirement of the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) for neuronal migration in the mouse forebrain. Conditional, late-prenatal deletion of Srf causes neurons to accumulate ectopically at the subventricular zone (SVZ), a prime neurogenic region in the brain. SRF-deficient cells of the SVZ exhibit impaired tangential chain migration along the rostral migratory stream into the olfactory bulb. SVZ explants display retarded chain migration in vitro. Regarding target genes, SRF deficiency impairs expression of the beta-actin and gelsolin genes, accompanied by reduced cytoskeletal actin fiber density. At the posttranslational level, cofilin, a key regulator of actin dynamics, displays dramatically elevated inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser-3. Our studies indicate that SRIF-controlled gene expression directs both the structure and dynamics of the actin microfilament, thereby determining cell-autonomous neuronal migration
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15837932
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  • 5
    Abstract: The transcription factor Nkx2-1 belongs to the homeobox-encoding family of proteins that have essential functions in prenatal brain development. Nkx2-1 is required for the specification of cortical interneurons and several neuronal subtypes of the ventral forebrain. Moreover, this transcription factor is involved in migratory processes by regulating the expression of guidance molecules. Interestingly, Nkx2-1 expression was recently detected in the mouse brain at postnatal stages. Using two transgenic mouse lines that allow prenatal or postnatal cell type-specific deletion of Nkx2-1, we show that continuous expression of the transcription factor is essential for the maturation and maintenance of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in mice. Notably, prenatal deletion of Nkx2-1 in GAD67-expressing neurons leads to a nearly complete loss of cholinergic neurons and parvalbumin-containing GABAergic neurons in the basal forebrain. We also show that postnatal mutation of Nkx2-1 in choline acetyltransferase-expressing cells causes a striking reduction in their number. These degenerative changes are accompanied by partial denervation of their target structures and results in a discrete impairment of spatial memory.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22098391
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  • 6
    Keywords: brain ; EXPRESSION ; transcription ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; BEHAVIOR ; secretion ; CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING-FACTOR ; IMPAIRED STRESS-RESPONSE ; ELEVATED PLUS-MAZE ; ADRENOCORTICAL REGULATION
    Abstract: The glucocorticoid receptor (Gr, encoded by the gene Grl1) controls transcription of target genes both directly by interaction with DNA regulatory elements and indirectly by cross-talk with other transcription factors. In response to various stimuli, including stress, glucocorticoids coordinate metabolic, endocrine, immune and nervous system responses and ensure an adequate profile of transcription. In the brain, Gr has been proposed to modulate emotional behaviour, cognitive functions and addictive states. Previously, these aspects were not studied in the absence of functional Gr because inactivation of Grl1 in mice causes lethality at birth (F.T., C.K. and G.S., unpublished data). Therefore, we generated tissue-specific mutations of this gene using the Cre/loxP -recombination system. This allowed us to generate viable adult mice with loss of Gr function in selected tissues. Loss of Gr function in the nervous system impairs hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis regulation, resulting in increased glucocorticoid (GC) levels that lead to symptoms reminiscent of those observed in Cushing syndrome. Conditional mutagenesis of Gr in the nervous system provides genetic evidence for the importance of Gr signalling in emotional behaviour because mutant animals show an impaired behavioural response to stress and display reduced anxiety.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 10471508
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  • 7
    Abstract: Targeted mutagenesis of the glucocorticoid receptor has revealed an essential function for survival and the regulation of multiple physiological processes. To investigate the effects of an increased gene dosage of the receptor, we have generated transgenic mice carrying two additional copies of the glucocorticoid receptor gene by using a yeast artificial chromosome. Interestingly, overexpression of the glucocorticoid receptor alters the basal regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in reduced expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotrope hormone and a fourfold reduction in the level of circulating glucocorticoids. In addition, primary thymocytes obtained from transgenic mice show an enhanced sensitivity to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Finally, analysis of these mice under challenge conditions revealed that expression of the glucocorticoid receptor above wild-type levels leads to a weaker response to restraint stress and a strongly increased resistance to lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock. These results underscore the importance of tight regulation of glucocorticoid receptor expression for the control of physiological and pathological processes. Furthermore, they may explain differences in the susceptibility of humans to inflammatory diseases and stress, depending on individual prenatal and postnatal experiences known to influence the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 11073999
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  • 8
    Abstract: Podocytes are highly specialized epithelial cells essentially required to establish and maintain the kidney filtration barrier. Due to their complex cellular architecture these cells rely on an elaborated cytoskeletal apparatus providing plasticity as well as adaptive adhesion properties to withstand significant physical filtration forces. However, our knowledge about podocyte specific components of the cytoskeletal machinery is still incomplete. Employing cross-analysis of various quantitative omics-data sets we identify the WD40-domain containing protein CORO2B as a podocyte enriched protein. Furthermore, we demonstrate the distinct localization pattern of CORO2B to the ventral actin cytoskeleton serving as a physical linkage module to cell-matrix adhesion sites. Analysis of a novel Coro2b knockout mouse revealed that CORO2B modulates stress response of podocytes in an experimental nephropathy model. Using quantitative focal adhesome proteomics we identify the recruitment of CFL1 via CORO2B to focal adhesions as an underlying mechanism. Thus, we describe CORO2B as a novel podocyte enriched protein influencing cytoskeletal plasticity and stress adaptation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29162887
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  • 9
    Abstract: T cell receptor (TCR) signaling without CD28 can elicit primary effector T cells, but memory T cells generated during this process are anergic, failing to respond to secondary antigen exposure. We show that, upon T cell activation, CD28 transiently promotes expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), an enzyme that facilitates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO), before the first cell division, coinciding with mitochondrial elongation and enhanced spare respiratory capacity (SRC). microRNA-33 (miR33), a target of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), attenuates Cpt1a expression in the absence of CD28, resulting in cells that thereafter are metabolically compromised during reactivation or periods of increased bioenergetic demand. Early CD28-dependent mitochondrial engagement is needed for T cells to remodel cristae, develop SRC, and rapidly produce cytokines upon restimulation-cardinal features of protective memory T cells. Our data show that initial CD28 signals during T cell activation prime mitochondria with latent metabolic capacity that is essential for future T cell responses.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28919076
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  • 10
    Abstract: Transcriptional regulation by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is essential for survival. Since the GR can influence transcription both through DNA-binding-dependent and -independent mechanisms, we attempted to assess their relative importance in vivo. In order to separate these modes of action, we introduced the point mutation A458T into the GR by gene targeting using the Cre/loxP system. This mutation impairs dimerization and therefore GRE-dependent transactivation while functions that require cross-talk with other transcription factors, such as transrepression of AP-1-driven genes, remain intact. In contrast to GR-/- mice, these mutants termed GRdim are viable, revealing the in vivo relevance of DNA-binding-independent activities of the GR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 9604929
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