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  • 1
    Abstract: We examined acceptability, preference and feasibility of collecting nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, followed by microbiome analysis, in a population-based study with 524 participants. Anterior nasal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected by certified personnel. In addition, participants self-collected nasal swabs at home four weeks later. Four swab types were compared regarding (1) participants' satisfaction and acceptance and (2) detection of microbial community structures based on deep sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene V1-V2 variable regions. All swabbing methods were highly accepted. Microbial community structure analysis revealed 846 phylotypes, 46 of which were unique to oropharynx and 164 unique to nares. The calcium alginate tipped swab was found unsuitable for microbiome determinations. Among the remaining three swab types, there were no differences in oropharyngeal microbiomes detected and only marginal differences in nasal microbiomes. Microbial community structures did not differ between staff-collected and self-collected nasal swabs. These results suggest (1) that nasal and oropharyngeal swabbing are highly feasible methods for human population-based studies that include the characterization of microbial community structures in these important ecological niches, and (2) that self-collection of nasal swabs at home can be used to reduce cost and resources needed, particularly when serial measurements are to be taken.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28500287
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: We determined the prevalence of anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANAs) in the German adult population and examined the association between ANAs and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. METHODS: We used data and blood samples from the pretest phases of the German National Cohort, obtained from six of the 18 study centers (n = 1199). All centers applied standardized instruments including face-to-face interviews, anthropometric measurements and collection of blood samples. Self-reported histories of diabetes mellitus, heart attack and elevated blood cholesterol and/or lipids were recorded. Height, weight and blood pressure were measured. ANAs were detected using a semi-automated system (AKLIDES(R); Medipan GmbH, Dahlewitz, Germany). A positive ANA was defined as a titer 〉/= 1:80. ANA were classified as weakly (1:80 or 1:160), moderately (1:320 or 1:640) or strongly (〉/=1:1280) positive. Specific autoantibodies against nuclear antigens were detected with second-step assays according to the ANA staining pattern. Associations between the assessed disorders and ANA positivity and pattern were examined using sex and age-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent (95% confidence interval; 31-36%) of the 1196 participants (measurements could not be obtained from three samples) were ANA positive (titer 〉/= 1:80). The proportions of weakly, moderately and strongly positive ANA were 29%, 3.3% and 1.3%, respectively. ANA positivity was more common among women than men across all titers (chi2, p = 0.03). ANA positivity, even when stratified according to height of titer or immunofluorescent pattern, was not associated with diabetes, elevated blood cholesterol and/or lipids, obesity or hypertension. Second-step autoantibody assays were positive in 41 of the 83 samples (49%) tested, with anti-DFS70 (n = 13) and anti-dsDNA (n = 7) being most frequent. These subgroups were too small to test for associations with the disorders assessed. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ANA positivity in the German general population was similar to values reported from other countries. Contrary to other studies, there was no association with selected self-reported and objectively measured cardiovascular and metabolic variables.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28587625
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Sepsis syndrome ; Medical intensive care ; Endotoxin ; Endotoxin core antibodies ; Sepsis score ; Prognostic factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: To assess the prognostic value of determining anti-endotoxin core antibodies (EndoCab) immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM in medical patients with sepsis syndrome in order to identify patient subgroups that may profit from endotoxin-neutralizing therapy. The findings were correlated with clinical outcome, endotoxin levels and sepsis score. Design: Cohort study with a follow-up period of 30 days. Setting: Medical intensive care units (2) of a university hospital. Patients and methods: Twenty-nine patients who fulfilled the criteria of sepsis syndrome and did not present with septic shock or had not been treated with antibiotics for more than 3 days were included in the study. Twenty-one intensive care patients without infections served as controls for antibody concentrations. Interventions: Blood samples were obtained from indwelling arterial catheters or direct venipuncture on admission and daily thereafter until transfer to a regular unit. Sepsis scores were determined daily. Results: The mortality rate at 30 days was 44.8 % (13 out of 29). Sepsis patients had significantly lower initial EndoCab IgM and IgG concentrations than controls. Initial EndoCab IgG concentrations were significantly lower in non-survivors of sepsis syndrome but not in survivors compared to controls (median concentrations 51.5 vs 110.1 vs 245.4 MU/ml). EndoCab IgM and IgG were lower in non-survivors compared to survivors, though that difference failed to reach significance (p = 0.11 in both cases). Depletion of initial EndoCab IgM concentrations (defined as a value below the 10th percentile of a control population) was present in 15 patients, 9 of whom died, and depletion of IgG in five patients, four of whom died. EndoCab IgM and IgG concentrations rose concordantly in survivors and non-survivors in the course of the disease. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to controls but not in survivors. A sepsis score of 21 and higher was associated with 90.9 % mortality (specificity 93.8 %, sensitivity 76.9 %). Conclusions: Decreased EndoCab IgG concentrations are associated with increased mortality in medical patients with sepsis syndrome. The measurement of initial anti-endotoxin antibodies may provide a useful tool to identify septic patients who profit potentially from endotoxin neutralizing therapy, however considerable overlap of antibody concentrations warrants additional parameters. The sepsis score is easy to determine and useful in the evaluation of medical patients with sepsis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Tetrahedron Letters 22 (1981), S. 2539-2540 
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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