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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Three cyanobacterial isolates (two LPP-B forms and one Anabaena or Nostoc species) from different environments could mobilize uranium from low-grade ores. After 80 days, up to 18% uranium had been extracted from coal and 51% from carbonate rock by the filamentous cyanobacterium OL3, a LPP-B form. Low growth requirements with regard to light and temperature optima make this strain a possible candidate for leaching neutral and alkaline low-grade uranium ores.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Susceptibility of 3 cyanobacterial strains to 19 inorganic compounds and 17 antibiotics was tested by using the dilution technique in microtiter plates and agar diffusion technique, respectively. Generally, the toxicity of inorganic salts to cyanobacteria could be classified as high (Hg, Ag, Cu, Co, Cd, Ni), intermediate (U, Pb, Al, Te, As (III), Mn) and low (As(V), Mo). Other salts (Zn, Cr, Ge, Sb, B) showed strain to strain differences in toxicity patterns. Except streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, amikacin, furazolidone (inhibition of all strains) and sulphanilamide (no inhibition) all other antibiotics showed differences of inhibition patterns. A spontaneous increase of resistance to As(V) and cross resistances to antibiotics and inorganic ions were indicated culturing strains in media with low levels of arsenate or mercuric ions. Antibiotic-resistant clones were isolated from inhibition zones. In conclusion, the results obtained with both methods are a good basis for further more detailed studies.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Oscillatoria ; Cyanobacteria ; Nitrogen fixation ; Light-dark cycles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. strain 23 fixes nitrogen under aerobic conditions. If nitrate-grown cultures were transferred to a medium free of combined nitrogen, nitrogenase was induced within about 1 day. The acetylene reduction showed a diurnal variation under conditions of continuous light. Maximum rates of acetylene reduction steadily increased during 8 successive days. When grown under alternating light-dark cycles, Oscillatoria sp. fixes nitrogen preferably in the dark period. For dark periods longer than 8 h, nitrogenase activity is only present during the dark period. For dark periods of 8 h and less, however, nitrogenase activity appears before the beginning of the dark period. This is most pronounced in cultures grown in a 20 h light – 4 h dark cycle. In that case, nitrogenase activity appears 3–4 h before the beginning of the dark period. According to the light-dark regime applied, nitrogenase activity was observed during 8–11 h. Oscillatoria sp. grown under 16 h light and 8 h dark cycle, also induced nitrogenase at the usual point of time, when suddenly transferred to conditions of continuous light. The activity appeared exactly at the point of time where the dark period used to begin. No nitrogenase activity was observed when chloramphenicol was added to the cultures 3 h before the onset of the dark period. This observation indicated that for each cycle, de novo nitrogenase synthesis is necessary.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Oscillatoria ; Cyanobacteria ; Glycogen ; Trehalose ; Fermentation ; Lactate ; Ethanol ; Acetate ; Sulfide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limosa, strain 23 (Oldenburg) was investigated with respect to its dark anaerobic metabolism. As soon as the cells were incubated anaerobically in the dark, they started to ferment. Glycogen was presumably degraded via the heterolactic fermentative pathway. Glycogen-glucose was degraded to equimolar amounts of lactate, ethanol and carbon dioxide. The disaccharide trehalose, which serves as an osmoprotectant in O. limosa, was also catabolized. Most probably, this compound was fermented almost exclusively to acetate. Some hydrogen was produced as well. In the presence of elemental sulfur, fermentative hydrogen production ceased and sulfide was produced instead. The presence of elemental sulfur had no effect on the amounts and ratios of the fermentation products produced.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Cyanobacteria ; Fermentation ; Lactate ; Acetate ; Ethanol ; Glycollate ; Formate ; Oxalate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An arbitrarily chosen selection of 37 cyanobacterial strains of the Oldenburg culture collection were tested for their ability of fermentation and secretion of fermentation products. In all examined strains at least one fermentation product could be detected. For the most part fermentation products were only shed in traces. Thus, for a large part of the investigated strains fermentation does not seem to be a sufficient metabolism to survive dark and anaerobic periods. Only five strains secreted remarkable amounts of products. Glycollate was mostly found in combination with formate and/or traces of oxalate. Lactate, ethanol and acetate were found in combination or single. Most of those strains sheding high amounts of glycollate and formate, did not show a remarkable lactate, ethanol or acetate excretion; those excreting high amounts of lactate, ethanol or acetate produced only minor volumes of glycollate and formate. It was not possible to find similar fermentation patterns by comparing fermentation of species belonging to the same family. Organisms fermenting or not fermenting could be found among marine, brackish and freshwater cyanobacteria. Fermentation, therefore seems to be a unique, and likely old capability among cyanobacteria, which was partly lost during evolution.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Oscillatoria ; Cyanobacteria ; Nitrogen fixation ; Oxygen protection of N2-ase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Oscillatoria sp. strain 23 is a filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium that fixes nitrogen aerobically. Although, in this organism nitrogenase is inactivated by oxygen a high tolerance is observed. Up to a pO2 of 0.15 atm, oxygen does not have any measurable effects on acetylene reduction. Higher concentrations of oxygen inhibited the activity to a relatively high degree. Evidence for two mechanisms of oxygen protection of nitrogenase in this cyanobacterium was obtained. A high rate of synthesis of nitrogenase may allow the organism to maintain a certain amount of active enzyme under aerobic conditions. Secondly, a switch off/on mechanism may reversibly convert the active enzyme into a non-active form which is insensitive to oxygen inactivation after a sudden and short-term exposure to high oxygen concentrations. It is conceived that these mechanisms in addition to a temporal separation of nitrogen fixation from oxygenic photosynthesis sufficiently explain the regulation process of aerobic nitrogen fixation in this organism.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Plectonema boryanum ; N2-fixation ; Exponential growth ; Microaerobiosis ; Light ; Pigments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Strains of filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria from the Pasteur Culture Collection (PCC), able to synthesize nitrogenase under anaerobic test conditions, were tested for growth with N2 as sole nitrogen source at low O2 partial pressure (less than 0.05%). Plectonema boryanum (PCC 73110) exhibited exponential growth under these conditions. This capacity was restricted to light intensities not exceeding 500 lux. Growth rates were 0.014/h at 200 and 0.023 at 500 lux and similar to those of anaerobic and aerobic control cultures with nitrate as N-source. For N2-fixing cultures incubated at 200 and 500 lux, acetylene reduction rates were 4–8 and 5–14 nmol C2H4 per mg protein per min, respectively. The ratio of phycocyanine to chlorophyll was higher (200 lux) or slightly reduced (500 lux) in N2-fixing cultures as compared to control cultures with nitrate as N-source. On the basis of epifluorescence microscopy and microfluorimetry, no differences in pigment contents were found between individual cells or filaments of N2-fixing cultures. Also no noteworthy differences were observed between the pycobiliprotein composition of individual cells in N2 fixing cultures as compared to nitrate-grown controls. Thus the observed exponential growth of P. boryanum at low light intensities implies simultaneous nitrogen fixation and oxygenic photosynthesis. Additional continuous culture experiments showed that N2-fixing exponential growth was dependent on O2 partial pressures lower than 0.2–0.4%. The other strains tested (PCC 6412, 6602, 7403, 7104) did not grow under such conditions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cyanobacterial mats developed on fine sandy sediments of the upper littoral of the island of Mellum (North Sea). Freshly colonized sediment was dominated by the non-heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limosa. Well established mats in which the cosmopolitan cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes was the dominant organism also usually contained O. limosa as a minor component. This mat was about 1 mm thick and contained high biomass. Photosynthesis was maximal at about 150 μm depth and reached values of 280 μmol oxygen. 1−1 ? min−1. On the other hand, in the dark, high respiratory activity turned the mat anaerobic within minutes. Freshly colonized sediment consisted of low cyanobacterial biomass loosely attached to the sand grains and present up to a depth of 2.5 mm. Respiratory activity was low and the sediment remained aerobic to a depth of 2 mm throughout the night. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) was measured during 24-h periods in both types of mats in order to elucidate interactions with oxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen concentration. Acetylene reduction in the mats showed very different diurnal patterns which depended on the type of mat investigated and the time of year. The results indicated that a temporary separation of oxygenic photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation occurred in the mat. Established mats fixed nitrogen predominantly during the transition from dark to light and vice versa, when oxygenic photosynthesis was reduced or absent. Freshly colonized sediment-fixed nitrogen throughout the night but often a stimulation was seen at dawn. The latter showed much higher specific activities than the established type. Also in spring, specific activities were much higher.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Black reduced sediment surfaces (Black Spots) in sandy intertidal flats of the German Wadden Sea (southern North Sea) are characterised by elevated sulphide concentrations (up to 20 mM) and low redox potentials. It is assumed that the appearance of Black Spots is linked to elevated levels of organic matter content within the sediments. In order to establish the effect of high substrate and sulphide concentrations on the heterotrophic microbial communities in Black Spot sediments, bacterial abundances and the potential C-source utilisation patterns of microbial communities were compared in natural and artificially induced Black Spots and unaffected control sites. Bacterial numbers were estimated by direct counts and the most probable number technique for different physiological groups, while patterns of C-substrate utilisation of entire aerobic microbial communities were assessed using the Biolog™ sole-carbon-source-catabolism assay. Bacterial abundances at Black Spot sites were increased, with increases in mean cell numbers, more disperse data distributions and more extreme values. Substrate utilisation patterns of aerobic microbial communities were significantly different in Black Spot sediment slurries, showing diminished richness (number of C-sources catabolised) and substrate diversity (Shannon diversity index) in comparison to unaffected sites. Principal component analysis clearly discriminated Black Spot utilisation patterns from controls and indicated that microbial communities in individual Black Spot sites are functionally diverse and differ from communities in oxidised surface sediments and reduced subsurface sediments at control sites. This work suggests that potentially negative effects on microbial communities in Black Spot sediments, through anoxia and high sulphide concentrations, are balanced by the stimulating influence of substrate availability, leading to comparable or higher bacterial numbers, but lower functional microbial diversity of aerobic microbial communities.
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