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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: iron ; iron chelator ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; plating efficiency ; siderophore
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Low-density seedings of yeast cells ofParacoccidioides brasiliensis give poor growth (as assessed by plating efficiency test) on conventional mycological agar media, and therefore growth-promoting factors for this fungus were sought. Water-extracts of yeast cells of sixP. brasiliensis isolates were all considerably effective in promoting the growth of low-density seedings ofP. brasiliensis isolates Pb-18 and Hachisuga, but had little effect on isolate Bt-4. Horse serum, at a concentration range of 2–4%, moderately or considerably promoted the growth of theseP. brasiliensis isolates. Combinations of the fungus cell extracts with horse serum were highly effective in promoting the growth of all of the fungal isolates. The fungus cell extracts showed siderophore (microbial iron carrier) activity. An iron-chelator, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, at a concentration of 100 μM also highly promoted the growth of the fungal isolates in the presence of horse serum, and ferric ion added to culture medium was considerably effective in the growth promotion. These results suggest that deficient utilization of external iron by the fungus cell is one of the growth-limiting processes for low-density seedings of yeast cells ofP. brasiliensis on conventional mycological agar media.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cell viability ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; Staining method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A comparative study of four different staining methods for estimation of live yeast form cells ofParacoccidioides brasiliensis was carried out. The staining methods used were fluorescent staining, vital dye exclusion tests with erythrosin B and by Janus green and lactophenol cotton blue staining. Colony forming units (cfu) of the yeast form of eightP. brasiliensis isolates on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) supplemented with 4% horse serum plus 5%P. brasiliensis cell extract (BHIA + HS + EXT) were examined for reliability of staining in determining the number of live fungal units in eight different isolates. Cfu on BHIA + HS + EXT plates showed an excellent plating efficiency over 96% in all isolates tested. The percentage of the live cells indicated by fluorescent staining (FL) or vital dye exclusion test with erythrosin B (EB) or Janus green (JG-1) was lower than that of cfu. By contrast, the percentage due to modified dye exclusion test with Janus green (JG-2) and that due to lactophenol cotton blue staining (LPCB) showed a close correration to that of cfu. Our results indicate that the modified dye exclusion test with Janus green and lactophenol cotton blue staining are useful for estimating cell viability of yeast form cells ofP. brasiliensis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ethanol-precipitated substance (EP) was prepared from culture filtrate of Fonsecaea pedrosoi. EP was separated into two components by passing through a Sephadex G-50 column; the faster passing component was referred to as EP-1, the slower as EP-2. EP-1 and EP-2 were evaluated as an antigen for detecting cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity in patients with chromomycosis. EP-1 elicited positive delayed skin reactions in all of 8 patients with chromomycosis, of which 7 caused by F. pedrosoi and one by Exophiala jeanselmei. Healthy subjects, patients with sporotrichosis and patients with tinea barbae failed to react to EP-1. These results indicate that EP-1 is a useful tool for detecting cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity in patients with chromomycosis caused by F. pedrosoi. It was found that precipitin test using EP-1 as an antigen had little diagnostic value in chromomycosis. EP-2 did not show antigenic activity in both skin and precipitin reactions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Human PMN ; H. capsulatum ; fungicidal resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The basis for resistance of yeast form of Histoplasma capsulatum to antifungal activity of human neutrophils was studied. In limiting dilution assays and short term coculture assays human neutrophils were ineffective in killing H. capsulatum whereas Candida albicans was readily killed. By contrast, in a cell free hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase-halide system H. capsulatum was as sensitive to killing as C. albicans. Moreover, lysate of human neutrophils effectively substituted for horse-radish peroxidase in a cell free system for killing H. capsulatum. H. capsulatum elicited significant products of the oxidative burst in human neutrophils as detected by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. However, the response was two-fold less (p〈0.05) than that induced by C. albicans. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed that phagosome-lysosome fusion took place when neutrophils phagocytosed C. albicans or H. capsulatum. Taken together, these findings indicate that, even though H. capsulatum elicits an oxidative burst and phagosome-lysosome fusion within the phagosome, it is capable of evading damage in short term assays.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 68 (1979), S. 9-15 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Time course of cellular and humoral immune responses in mice infected with Fonsecaea pedrosoi was investigated by using an antigen prepared from culture filtrate of this fungus. Mice were infected by intravenous injection with yeast-like cells of the fungus. Viable fungus was recovered from the brain of the infected mice until the 36th day after inoculation, and from the other organs examined until 14th to 16th day. Inflammatory lesions were observed in the brain, lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine during the first 30 days after inoculation. Macrophage migration inhibition factor response in these mice was insignificant until 8 days after inoculation. A significant response was developed at day 10 and persisted until day 63. This response returned negative by 95 days after inoculation. Lymphocyte transformation response of these mice was negative until 4 days after inoculation. At day 6 blastogenic index increased to 1.5, and at day 10, 14 and 16 the indices were 1.8, 2.4 and 1.7 respectively. Precipitin response to this fungus could not be detected in these mice until 16 days after inoculation. Positive results were obtained at day 21 and lasted until 51 days after inoculation. The precipitin titers, however, did not exceed one fold in any of these mice.
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