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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Ca2+ Channel ; Ca2+ Channel activators ; Ca2+ Channel antagonists ; Bay K 8644 ; Structureactivity relationships
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The structure-activity relationships of a series of 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel activators, including Bay K 8644, have been determined by pharmacologic and radioligand binding techniques. Pharmacologic techniques included tension responses and the measurement of pA2 values for nifedipine antagonism of Bay K 8644 responses in guinea pig ileal, rat femoral and rat atrial and papillary muscle preparations. Radioligand binding experiments employed competition against [3H]nitrendipine binding in ileal smooth muscle and rat ventricular membranes and rat brain synaptosomal preparations. The series of compounds was employed as the racemates. Binding affinities were not significantly different between smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and brain preparations and the same rank order of pharmacologic activities is observed in smooth and cardiac muscle, where the effects of the 4-phenyl substituents, o ⩾ m 〉 p, parallel those observed for 1,4-dihydropyridine antagonists. In the ileal and femoral artery smooth muscle preparations a 1:1 correlation is observed between pharmacologic and radioligand binding affinities. However, in the cardiac muscle preparations, left atrium and papillary muscle, there is an approximately 10-fold difference between the binding affinities and the lower pharmacologic affinities. A similar difference between smooth and cardiac muscle is observed with the pA2 values of 6.97 and 7.06 in atrial and papillary muscle respectively, which are significantly lower than the values of 8.54 and 8.72 measured in ileal and femoral artery respectively. The structure-activity expressions measured for this small series of 1,4-dihydropyridine activators parallel those observed in the larger series of 1,4-dihydropyridine antagonists. This is consistent with proposals that activators and antagonists interact at common binding sites that are components of a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Ca2+ ; Ca2+ channels ; Ca2+ channel antagonists ; 1,4-Dihydropyridines ; [3H]PN 200-110
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The Ca2+ channel antagonistic potencies of tiamdipine [2-(2-aminoethylthio)methyl-3-carboethoxy-5-carbomethoxy-6-methyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine] and nifedipine [2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dicarbomethoxy-4-(2nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine] analogs bearing phenyl ring substituents were studied using pharmacologic and radioligand binding techniques. Additionally, analogs of tiamdipine possessing (2-aminoethylthio)methyl-, (2-acetamidoethylthio)methyl-and (2-pyrrolidinylmethylthio)methyl-groups at the C2 position of the 1,4-dihydropyridine ring have been studied. Tiamdipine and nifedipine analogs inhibited K+-induced contractile responses in rat tail artery. IC50 values of 4-phenyl ring substituted 2-(2-aminoethylthio)methyl tiamdipine analogs ranged from 10−7 mol/l to 10−8 mol/l. However, the corresponding 4-phenyl ring substituted nifedipine analogs covered a wider range of potency from 10−6 mol/l to 10−9 mol/l. K, values of the corresponding tiamdipine analogs for the inhibition of specific [3H]PN 200-110 [( I- ) [3H]isopropyl-4-(2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)-1,4-dihydro-5-methoxycarbonyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-pyridinecarboxylate] binding-ranged from 10−7 mol/l to 10−9 mol/l in guinea pig ileal and rat heart membranes and rat brain synaptosomes. The two stereoisomers of tiamdipine and its analog 2-(2acetamidoethylthio)methyl-3-carboethoxy-5-carbomethoxy-6-methyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine, and the four stereoisomers of 2-(2-pyrrolidinylmethylthio)methyl-3carboethoxy-5-carbomethoxy-6-methyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)1,4-dihydropyridine showed high stereoselectivity ratios of approximately (−)/(+) = 100 and 1000 in pharmacologic and binding experiments, respectively. The inhibitory actions of 2-(2-aminoethylthio)methyltiamdipine analogs against K+-induced contractile responses in rat tail artery developed very slowly requiring at least 2 h for maximum effect. The recoveries of response to K+ depolarization were also correspondingly slow. However, recovery was greatly accelerated by the presence of the 1,4-dihydropyridine activator Bay K 8644 [2,6-dimethyl-3carbomethoxy-5-nitro-4-(2-trifluoromethyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine, 5 × 10−6 mol/l] immediately prior to the K+ challenge. The 2-(2-acetamidoethylthio)methyl tiamdipine derivative and nifedipine produced maximum inhibitory effects within 10 min, and responses recovered rapidly upon washing. The slow kinetics of onset and offset of action of the tiamdipine analogs and the reduced effects of 4-phenyl substitution relative to agents of the nifedipine series suggest that these two series of 1,4-dihydropyridines exhibit different modes of interaction with the Ca2+ channel. At least part of this difference is to be attributed to the presence of a charged group in the basic tiamdipine series. Trapping of these agents within the membrane phase likely contributes to their observed slow kinetics of action.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta mechanica 77 (1989), S. 281-297 
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary Thermomechanical deformations of a body made of two different materials and under-going simple shearing deformations are studied with the objectives of finding out when and where adiabatic shear bands will initiate and how they will subsequently grow. Each material is modeled as strain and strain-rate hardening but thermally softening. A shear band is presumed to have formed if the introduction of a temperature perturbation centered around the common interface between the two materials results in an eventual localization of the deformation into a region of width considerably smaller than the width of the initial temperature bump. For a fixed set of material properties the effect of the applied overall strain-rate, and for a fixed applied strain-rate the effect of varying the shear modulus, thermal conductivity, and the coefficient of thermal softening of one material relative to the other have been examined. It is found that a shear band forms in the material that softens more rapidly.
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