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  • 1
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  50. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie (gmds), 12. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Epidemiologie; 20050912-20050915; Freiburg im Breisgau; DOC05gmds032 /20050908/
    Publication Date: 2005-09-09
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1544
    Keywords: Key words Coronary artery disease ; silent ischemia ; ergometry ; Schlüsselwörter Stumme Myokardischämie ; koronare Herzkrankheit ; Ergometrie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die stumme Myokardischämie ist ein klinisch bedeutsamer Teilaspekt der koronaren Herzkrankheit. In dieser Arbeit werden Häufigkeit, diagnostische und methodische Aspekte, im Hinblick auf die Ergometrie, dargestellt sowie Hinweise zur prognostischen Bewertung und Folgerungen für die Praxis gegeben.
    Notes: Summary Silent ischemia is a significant phenomenon in interpretating signs and symptoms of coronary artery disease. This paper describes frequency, diagnostic and methodological aspects of silent ischemia, as well as prognosis and consequences for daily practice.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-1420
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Bicycle ergometry ; Perceived exertion ; Pedalling rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The perceived exertion rating (RPE) scale of Borg was used to investigate the relationship between perceived exertion and pedalling rate. Normal subjects and patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (Cold) were studied in repeated test series. Work load, applied in a random order, varied from 2.5 to 10 mkp/s (patients) and 5 to 20 mkp/s (normals). Pedalling rate varied from 40 to 60, 80, 100 rpm. At constant work load, RPE decreases during increasing pedalling rate. With respect to validity, RPE, showing a closer relationship to work load than to heart rate, seems to reflect perception of physical stress rather than perception of physiological strain. In addition, the results raise the question of standardization of pedalling rate in bicycle ergometry.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Perceived Exertion Rating ; Pedalling Rate ; Methods in Ergometry ; Psycho-Physiology in Effort
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Methodical aspects of the relationship between pedalling rate and rotating mass and perceived exertion rating (PER; Borg, 1962) were studied in trained, untrained, and ill subjects in bicycle ergometry. Pedalling rate varied between 40 and 100 rpm, work load steps were 5, 10, 15 and 20 mkp/sec in the healthy subjects, and 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mkp/sec in the patients. PER decreased with increasing pedalling rate in all healthy subjects. In the patients, PER increased moderately at work load of 2.5 mkp/sec, but decreased at higher work loads up to 80 rpm, followed by a slight increase at 100 rpm. Higher mass of the flywheel, studied in 6 trained subjects, lowered the PER insignificantly. In the healthy subjects, test criteria, such as reproducibility, reliability, sensitivity, and linearity remained almost unaffected by pedalling rate. In patients, increasing pedalling speed diminished reproducibility and sensitivity. The strictness of the PER work load relationship is lowered at higher pedalling rate, especially at 100 rpm. When using the PER scale, pedalling rate has to be considered as an factor of main influence.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: NO2, SO2, O3 ; Pulmonary function ; Standardization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eleven healthy male subjects aged 23 to 38 years (including 2 smokers) were exposed to purified air (= control experiment), to NO2, O3, and SO2 alone, to mixtures of NO2 + SO2, and NO2 + O3 in MAK1 concentration, and to a mixture of NO2 + SO2 + O3 in MAK and MIK2 concentrations for 2 h. Nine of these subjects underwent a bronchial challenge by inhaling in a standardized procedure, an aerosol containing 1%, 2%, and 3% acetylcholine after a 2-h exposure to clean air and to a mixture of NO2 + SO2 + O3 in MAK and MIK concentrations, respectively. The following results were obtained: 1. A significant PaO2 decrease and Raw increase was observed in all series with NO2 in MAK concentration as compared to the initial values or the behavior in the controls. 2. The combinations of NO2 + O3, NOi2 + SO2, or NO2 + SO2 + O3 did not show a stronger effect than NO2 alone; however, in the latter series, recovery of PaO2 seemed to be delayed and Raw even increased in the post-exposure period. 3. Exposure to NO2 + SO2 + O3 in MIK concentration did not show any effect on PaO2 and Raw. 4. Acetylcholine challenge following exposure to a combination of NO2 + SO2 + O3 in MIK concentration resulted in a significantly increased reactivity to Ach as compared to the control series. Increased reactivity became more pronounced after exposure to the mixture of NO2 + SO2 + O3 in MAK concentration. From the results of this study and previous data there is a special need for re-evaluation of the present NO2 MAK concentration (5 ppm; 9 mg/m3).
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-055X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Isoprenaline ; asthma ; obstructive lung disease ; bronchial spasm ; bronchodilatation ; drug resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 12 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease have been studied in an investigation regarding the causes of resistance to isoprenaline. The effects of repeated intravenous doses of 10 µg isoprenaline were assessed by cross over comparison before and after infusions of isoprenaline and a placebo; the infusions lasted for 35 to 40 min and the amount of isoprenaline infused was 0.5 µg/min. Total resistance, thoracic gas volume (whole-body plethysmography) and heart rate (ECG) were measured. No decrease in bronchospasmolytic or positive chronotopic effects on single isoprenaline injections could be demonstrated after prolonged infusions of isoprenaline.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: AaD(O2, CO2): Age-dependence ; influence of biometric data ; estimation by multiple regression equations ; AaD(O2, CO2): Altersabhängigkeit ; Einfluß biometrischer Größen ; Schätzung durch multiple Regressionsgleichungen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei einer Gruppe A (n=65; 20–78 Jahre) und einer Gruppe B (n=35; 22–78 Jahre) herz- und lungengesunder, mäßig sportlich aktiver Männer wurden die arterio-alveolären Gasdruckdifferenzen (AaDO2 und aADCO2) sowie andere Funktionsgrößen wie Atemzeitvolumina, O2-Aufnahme, CO2-Abgabe und Toträume in körperlicher Ruhe bestimmt. Als „alveoläre“ Drücke galten für O2 der endexspiratorische und für CO2 der mittexspiratorische Wert der massenspektrometrisch registrierten Konzentrationskurven der Ausatmungsluft. Es fand sich eine statistisch gesicherte Altersabhängigkeit beider Gasdruckdifferenzen. Dabei wird die AaDO2 im wesentlichen durch den Altersgang des arteriellen O2-Druckes, die aADCO2 durch einen Altersgang des alveolären CO2-Druckes bewirkt. Die Regressionsgleichungen lauten: 1. für die AaDO2:y R=0,52 × Alter −4,85,2. für die aADOC2:y R=0,14 × Alter −4,19. Aus den Gleichungen folgt, daß während eines Lebensjahrzehnts die AaDO2 um 5,2 mm Hg und die aADCO2 um 1,4 mm Hg im Mittel zunimmt. Für die Druckdifferenzen als Schätzgrößen wurden multiple Regressionen gerechnet (s. Tabelle 4), in der Form, daß die mit der Schätzgröße statistisch korrelierten Variablen schrittweise nach ihrer Gewichtung in den Rechengang einbezogen oder verworfen wurden. Dadurch wird eine Steuungseinengung der Schätzgröße gegenüber den Meßgrößen erreicht, in den hier genannten Beispielen ein Streuungsrückgang für die AaDO2 von 13,6 auf 8,3 mm Hg und für die aADCO2 von 4,7 auf 3,6 mm Hg. Durch dieses Vorgehen gelingt eine zuverlässigere Normwertbestimmung der geschätzten Größen, die Trennschärfe zwischen pathologischen und normalen Bereichen wird erhöht. Betrachtet man nicht die Lungenfunktion als vom Alter abhängige Variable, sondern sieht umgekehrt das Alter als abhängige Variable (Schätzgröße) an, so ließe sich durch Verknüpfung gut definierbarer altersabhängiger Funktionsgrößen über eine Mehrfachregression das funktionelle Alter der Lunge schätzen. Ein Vergleich dieses so geschätzten „pulmonalen Altersäquivalents“ mit dem chronologischen Alter könnte die Grundlage zur Beurteilung der Funktionstüchtigkeit des pulmonalen Systems abgeben.
    Notes: Summary In a group A (n=65; 20 to 78 years of age) and in a group B (n=35; 22 to 78 years of age) of moderately active men without heart or lung diseases, the arterio-alveolar gas pressure differences (AaDO2 and aADCO2) as well as other parameters like minute ventilation, O2-intake, CO2-release and dead space at rest were determined. Alveolar pressures were for O2 the endexpiratory and for CO2 the midexpiratory values of the concentration curve of expiratory air determined by mass spectrometry. The gas pressure differences were statistically significant with regard to age-dependence. The AaDO2 is mainly determined by the age-dependent change in arterial O2-pressures, the aADCO2 by the age-dependent change in alveolar CO2-pressures. The regression equations are: (1) for the AaDO2:y R=0.52 × age −4.85, (2) for the aADCO2:y R=0.14 × age −4.19. From these calculations follows an average increase per decade of 5.2 mm Hg for AaDO2 and of 1.4 mm Hg for aADCO2. Multiple regressions were calculated for pressure differences as estimated values (see Table 4) so that variables statistically correlating with estimated values were step by step included in or excluded from the calculation according to their importance. This permits to obtain a narrowing of the estimated value as compared to the measured data, in these examples a cut down in variation for AaDO2 from 14.5 to 8.3 mm Hg and for aADCO2 from 4.7 to 2.7 mm Hg. A more reliable estimation of normal values of estimated figures is so achieved, and the borderline between normal and pathological areas is more clearly defined. If one does not consider pulmonary function as an age-dependent variable but age as the dependent variable (estimated value), the functional age of the lung could be determined by combining well defined age-dependent parameters by means of a multiple regression. A comparison of the so estimated “pulmonary age equivalent” with the chronological age could form the basis to judge the functional capabilities of the pulmonary system.
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