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  • 1
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Observations are presented of data taken during a 3-h interval in which five clear substorm onsets/intensifications took place. During this interval ground-based data from the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, a digital CCD all sky camera, and an extensive array of magnetometers were recorded. In addition data from the CRRES and DMSP spacecraft, whose footprints passed over Scandinavia very close to most of the ground-based instrumentation, are available. The locations and movements of the substorm current system in latitude and longitude, determined from ground and spacecraft magnetic field data, have been correlated with the locations and propagation of increased particle precipitation in the E-region at EISCAT, increased particle fluxes measured by CRRES and DMSP, with auroral luminosity and with ionospheric convection velocities. The onsets and propagation of the injection of magnetospheric particle populations and auroral luminosity have been compared. CRRES was within or very close to the substorm expansion phase onset sector during the interval. The onset region was observed at low latitudes on the ground, and has been confirmed to map back to within L=7 in the magnetotail. The active region was then observed to propagate tailward and poleward. Delays between the magnetic signature of the substorm field aligned currents and field dipolarisation have been measured. The observations support a near-Earth plasma instability mechanism for substorm expansion phase onset.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A coordinated ground-based observational campaign using the IMAGE magnetometer network, EISCAT radars and optical instruments on Svalbard has made possible detailed studies of a travelling convection vortices (TCV) event on 6 January 1992. Combining the data from these facilities allows us to draw a very detailed picture of the features and dynamics of this TCV event. On the way from the noon to the drawn meridian, the vortices went through a remarkable development. The propagation velocity in the ionosphere increased from 2.5 to 7.4 km s−1, and the orientation of the major axes of the vortices rotated from being almost parallel to the magnetic meridian near noon to essentially perpendicular at dawn. By combining electric fields obtained by EISCAT and ionospheric currents deduced from magnetic field recordings, conductivities associated with the vortices could be estimated. Contrary to expectations we found higher conductivities below the downward field aligned current (FAC) filament than below the upward directed. Unexpected results also emerged from the optical observations. For most of the time there were no discrete aurora at 557.7 nm associated with the TCVs. Only once did a discrete form appear at the foot of the upward FAC. This aurora subsequently expanded eastward and westward leaving its centre at the same longitude while the TCV continued to travel westward. Also we try to identify the source regions of TCVs in the magnetosphere and discuss possible generation mechanisms.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Ionosphere (Aural ionosphere; Ionospheremagnetosphere interactions) ; Magnetospheric Physics (current system)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract For the six months from 1 October 1993 to 1 April 1994 the recordings of the IMAGE magnetometer network have been surveyed in a search for largeamplitude travelling convection vortices (TCVs). The restriction to large amplitudes (〉100 nT) was chosen to ensure a proper detection of evens also during times of high activity. Readings of all stations of the northern half of the IMAGE network were employed to check the consistency of the ground signature with the notation of a dual-vortex structure moving in an azimuthal direction. Applying these stringent selection criteria we detected a total of 19 clear TCV events. The statistical properties of our selection resemble the expected characteristics of large-amplitude TCVs. New and unexpected results emerged from the superposed epoch analysis. TCVs tend to form during quiet intervals embedded in moderately active periods. The occurrence of events is not randomly distributed but rather shows a clustering around a few days. These clusters recur once or twice every 27 days. Within a storm cycle they show up five to seven days after the commencement. With regard to solar wind conditions, we see the events occurring in the middle of the IMF sector structure. Large-amplitude TCVs seem to require certain conditions to make solar wind transients ‘geoeffective’, which have the tendency to recur with the solar rotation period.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Surveys in geophysics 6 (1984), S. 305-315 
    ISSN: 1573-0956
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A description of a new magnetometer network in northern Scandinavia is presented. The network, the ‘EISCAT-Magnetometer Cross’, is a cooperative project between Scandinavian and German research groups. It consists of seven continuously recording digital magnetometer stations. A special feature of the instruments is their almost maintainance free operation. The hardware has been developed at the Technical University of Braunschweig, F.R.G., and represents the state-of-the-art in digital magnetometer stations. Operation began on 1 October, 1982 and the instruments functioned well during the first year. Some problems we had with the stability of the sensor mounts. In spite of this we were able to gather a valuable set of magnetic field data.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Cluster mission provides a new opportunity to study plasma processes and structures in the near-Earth plasma environment. Four-point measurements of the magnetic field will enable the analysis of the three dimensional structure and dynamics of a range of phenomena which shape the macroscopic properties of the magnetosphere. Difference measurements of the magnetic field data will be combined to derive a range of parameters, such as the current density vector, wave vectors, and discontinuity normals and curvatures, using classical time series analysis techniques iteratively with physical models and simulation of the phenomena encountered along the Cluster orbit. The control and understanding of error sources which affect the four-point measurements are integral parts of the analysis techniques to be used. The flight instrumentation consists of two, tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers and an on-board data-processing unit on each spacecraft, built using a highly fault-tolerant architecture. High vector sample rates (up to 67 vectors s-1) at high resolution (up to 8 pT) are combined with on-board event detection software and a burst memory to capture the signature of a range of dynamic phenomena. Data-processing plans are designed to ensure rapid dissemination of magnetic-field data to underpin the collaborative analysis of magnetospheric phenomena encountered by Cluster.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present an analysis of ground magnetic field, ionospheric flow, geosynchronous particle, and interplanetary data during a multiple-onset substorm on 12 April 1988. Our principal results concern the modulations of the ionospheric flow which occur during the impulsive electrojet activations associated with each onset. During the first hour of the disturbance these take place every \sim12.5 min and involve the formation of a new intense westward current filament in the premidnight sector, just poleward of the preexisting extended current system driven by the large-scale flow. These filaments are \sim1 h MLT wide (\sim600 km), and initially expand poleward to a width of \sim300 km before contracting equatorward and coalescing with the preexisting current, generally leaving the latter enhanced in magnitude and/or expanded in latitude. Within the impulsive electrojets the flow is found to be suppressed to values 50–100 m s−1 or less during the first few minutes, before surging equatorward at 0.5-1.0 km s−1 during the phase of rapid coalescence. The implication is that the precipitation-induced Hall conductivity within the impulsive electrojet initially rises to exceed \sim100 mho, before decaying over a few minutes. This value compares with Hall conductivities of \sim20 mho in the quasi-steady current regions, and a few mho or less in the regions poleward of the electrojets and in the preonset ionosphere. Preliminary evidence has also been found that the flow surges propagate from midnight to the morning sector where they are associated with arrested equatorward motion or poleward contractions of the current system. These observations are discussed in terms of present theoretical paradigms of the global behaviour of fields and flows which occur during substorms.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Using data on the occurrence frequency of geomagnetic pulsations of different periods from three observatories in Central Europe, conclusions are drawn about the occurrence of field line resonances and pulsations directly driven by upstream waves at L-values below 3. It was found that both types occur during the interval studied (first 6 months of the year 1991), but both the occurrence frequency of the two types and the characteristic period of the field line resonance change significantly as compared to other intervals. During Northern winter, pulsation activity is severely damped in solar maximum years, including the year 1991. The decrease in the activity of the pulsations is more significant at shorter periods.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Equatorial electrojet ; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions ; Electric fields and currents ; Auroral ionosphere ; Ionospheric disturbances
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Geomagnetic storm-time variations often occur coherently at high latitude and the day-side dip equator where they affect the normal eastward Sq field. This paper presents an analysis of ground magnetic field and ionospheric electrodynamic data related to the geomagnetic storm which occured on 27 May 1993 during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment. This storm-signature analysis on the auroral, mid-latitude and equatorial ground field and ionospheric electrodynamic data leads to the identification of a sensitive response of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) to large-scale auroral return current: this response consists in a change of the eastward electric field during the pre-sunrise hours (0400–0600 UT) coherently to the high-, mid-, and equatorial-latitude H decrease and the disappearance of the EEJ irregularities between the time-interval 0800–0950 UT. Subsequent to the change in h’F during pre-sunrise hours, the observed foF2 increase revealed an enhancement of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) caused by the high-latitude penetrating electric field. The strengthening of these irregularities attested by the Doppler frequency increase tracks the H component at the equator which undergoes a rapid increase around 0800 UT. The ΔH variations observed at the equator are the sum of the following components: SR, DP, DR, DCF and DT.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The geomagnetic response to the passage of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is studied. The passage of the CME resulted in a storm sudden commencement (SSC) at 2243 UT on March 20 1990 with disturbed magnetic activity during the following 24 h. The auroral, sub-auroral and equatorial magnetic response to the southward turning at 1314 (±5) UT on March 21 and the equatorial response to the southward turning associated with the SSC on 20 March are discussed in terms of existing models. It is found that the auroral and sub-auroral response to the southward turning associated with the SSC is a factor 2 or more quicker than normal due to the shock in the solar wind dynamic pressure. The low-latitude response time to the south-ward turning, characterised by Dst and the magneto-pause current corrected Dst*, is una.ected by the shock. Dst and Dst*, characteristic of the equatorial magnetic field, responded to the 1314 (±5) UT southward turning prior to the first observed substorm expansion phase onset, suggesting that a dayside loading process was responsible for the initial enhancement in the ring current rather than nightside particle injection. The response time of the auroral and sub-auroral magnetic field to the southward turning at 1314 (±5) UT on March 21 is measured at a variety of longitudes and latitudes. The azimuthal propagation velocity of the response to the southward turning varied considerably with latitude, ranging from #x0223C;8 km s−1 at 67°N to ∼4 kms−1 at 55°N. The southward velocity of the equatorward boundary of the northern polar convection pattern has been measured. This velocity was ∼1.2 km s−1 at 1600 MLT, although there was evidence that this may vary at different local times.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The CUTLASS Finland HF radar has been operational since February 1995. The radar frequently observes backscatter during the midnight sector from a latitude range 70–75° geographic, latitudes often associated with the polar cap. These intervals of backscatter occur during intervals of substorm activity, predominantly in periods of relatively quiet magnetospheric activity, with Kp during the interval under study being 2-and ∑KP for the day being only 8-. During August 1995 the radar ran in a high time resolution mode, allowing measurements of line-of-sight convection velocities along a single beam with a temporal resolution of 14s, and measurement of a full spatial scan of line-of-sight convection velocities every four minutes. Data from such scans reveal the radar to be measuring return flow convection during the interval of substorm activity. For three intervals during the period under study, a reduction in the spatial extent of radar backscatter occurred. This is a consequence of D region HF absorption and its limited extent in the present study is probably a consequence of the high latitude of the substorm activity, with the electrojet centre lying between 67° and 71° geomagnetic latitude. The high time resolution beam of the radar additionally demonstrates that the convection is highly time dependent. Pulses of equatorward flow exceeding ∼600 m s−1 are observed with a duration of ∼5 min and a repetition period of ∼8 min. Their spatial extent in the CUTLASS field of view was 400–500 km in longitude, and 300–400 km in latitude. Each pulse of enhanced equatorward flow was preceded by an interval of suppressed flow and enhanced ionospheric Hall conductance. The transient features are interpreted as being due to ionospheric current vortices associated with field aligned current pairs. The relationship between these observations and substorm phenomena in the magnetotail is discussed.
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