Fruit juice adulteration
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Summary The configurations of free amino acids (AAs) in orange juice beverages (commercial products of satisfactory and unsatisfactory quality), an orange juice concentrate (bulk product suspected of being adulterated), and in an orange juice that has been contaminated by addition ofLactobacillus plantarum as a model for microbial spoilage, were determined, after derivatization, by means of gas-liquid chromatography (GC) using fused-silica capillary columns coated with Chirasil-L-Val or Chirasil-D-Val as stationary phases. AAs were isolated from juices by treatment with Dowex WX8 ion-exchanger and were investigated, by GC, as theirN(O)-pentafluoropropionylorN(O)-trifluoroacetyl 1-propyl esters. It was found that the high quality orange juice beverage contained L-AAs exclusively whereas this juice, after fermentation withLactobacillus, contained free D-Ala (32.7%), D-Val (62.3%), D-Phe (20.0%), D-Glu (24.3%), D-Ser (2.6%), D-Asp (0.8%), and significant amounts of D-Pro [% D=100 D/(D+L)]. D-Ala (8.8%) and D-Ser (4.2%) were found in a sensory and analytically unsatisfactory orange juice beverage, whilst D-Ala (27.5%) and D-Ser (14.3%) were detected in the orange juice concentrate suspected of being adulterated. Although capillary GC on chiral stationary phases is regarded as being highly suitable for the determination of AA enantiomers in fruit juice beverages, detection of D-AAs is currently not considered as conclusive proof of fruit juice adulteration caused by addition of AA racemates since a non-microbial origin of D-AAs in the respective juice, or an original occurrence of D-AAs, in either the free, substituted, or peptide-bonded form in the fruits, cannot be excluded with certainty.
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