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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-03-11
    Description: Anxiety--a sustained state of heightened apprehension in the absence of immediate threat--becomes severely debilitating in disease states. Anxiety disorders represent the most common of psychiatric diseases (28% lifetime prevalence) and contribute to the aetiology of major depression and substance abuse. Although it has been proposed that the amygdala, a brain region important for emotional processing, has a role in anxiety, the neural mechanisms that control anxiety remain unclear. Here we explore the neural circuits underlying anxiety-related behaviours by using optogenetics with two-photon microscopy, anxiety assays in freely moving mice, and electrophysiology. With the capability of optogenetics to control not only cell types but also specific connections between cells, we observed that temporally precise optogenetic stimulation of basolateral amygdala (BLA) terminals in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)--achieved by viral transduction of the BLA with a codon-optimized channelrhodopsin followed by restricted illumination in the downstream CeA--exerted an acute, reversible anxiolytic effect. Conversely, selective optogenetic inhibition of the same projection with a third-generation halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0) increased anxiety-related behaviours. Importantly, these effects were not observed with direct optogenetic control of BLA somata, possibly owing to recruitment of antagonistic downstream structures. Together, these results implicate specific BLA-CeA projections as critical circuit elements for acute anxiety control in the mammalian brain, and demonstrate the importance of optogenetically targeting defined projections, beyond simply targeting cell types, in the study of circuit function relevant to neuropsychiatric disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154022/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154022/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tye, Kay M -- Prakash, Rohit -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Fenno, Lief E -- Grosenick, Logan -- Zarabi, Hosniya -- Thompson, Kimberly R -- Gradinaru, Viviana -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F32MH088010-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000616/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000616-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA020794/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA020794-01/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH075957/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH075957-01A2/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 17;471(7338):358-62. doi: 10.1038/nature09820. Epub 2011 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21389985" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/cytology/*physiology/radiation effects ; Animals ; Anxiety/*physiopathology ; Anxiety Disorders/physiopathology ; Halorhodopsins/metabolism ; Light ; Mice ; Models, Neurological ; Neural Pathways/physiology/radiation effects ; Neurons/physiology/radiation effects ; Stress, Physiological/physiology ; Synapses/physiology/radiation effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-04-12
    Description: Obtaining high-resolution information from a complex system, while maintaining the global perspective needed to understand system function, represents a key challenge in biology. Here we address this challenge with a method (termed CLARITY) for the transformation of intact tissue into a nanoporous hydrogel-hybridized form (crosslinked to a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers) that is fully assembled but optically transparent and macromolecule-permeable. Using mouse brains, we show intact-tissue imaging of long-range projections, local circuit wiring, cellular relationships, subcellular structures, protein complexes, nucleic acids and neurotransmitters. CLARITY also enables intact-tissue in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry with multiple rounds of staining and de-staining in non-sectioned tissue, and antibody labelling throughout the intact adult mouse brain. Finally, we show that CLARITY enables fine structural analysis of clinical samples, including non-sectioned human tissue from a neuropsychiatric-disease setting, establishing a path for the transmutation of human tissue into a stable, intact and accessible form suitable for probing structural and molecular underpinnings of physiological function and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092167/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092167/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chung, Kwanghun -- Wallace, Jenelle -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Kalyanasundaram, Sandhiya -- Andalman, Aaron S -- Davidson, Thomas J -- Mirzabekov, Julie J -- Zalocusky, Kelly A -- Mattis, Joanna -- Denisin, Aleksandra K -- Pak, Sally -- Bernstein, Hannah -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Grosenick, Logan -- Gradinaru, Viviana -- Deisseroth, Karl -- DP1 OD000616/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA020794/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH099647/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 16;497(7449):332-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12107. Epub 2013 Apr 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23575631" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*anatomy & histology ; Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry ; Formaldehyde/chemistry ; Humans ; Hydrogel/chemistry ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/*methods ; In Situ Hybridization/methods ; Lipids/isolation & purification ; Mice ; Molecular Imaging/*methods ; Permeability ; Phenotype ; Scattering, Radiation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Motivation for reward drives adaptive behaviors, whereas impairment of reward perception and experience (anhedonia) can contribute to psychiatric diseases, including depression and schizophrenia. We sought to test the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) controls interactions among specific subcortical regions that govern hedonic responses. By using optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging to locally manipulate but globally visualize neural activity in rats, we found that dopamine neuron stimulation drives striatal activity, whereas locally increased mPFC excitability reduces this striatal response and inhibits the behavioral drive for dopaminergic stimulation. This chronic mPFC overactivity also stably suppresses natural reward-motivated behaviors and induces specific new brainwide functional interactions, which predict the degree of anhedonia in individuals. These findings describe a mechanism by which mPFC modulates expression of reward-seeking behavior, by regulating the dynamical interactions between specific distant subcortical regions.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772156/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772156/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ferenczi, Emily A -- Zalocusky, Kelly A -- Liston, Conor -- Grosenick, Logan -- Warden, Melissa R -- Amatya, Debha -- Katovich, Kiefer -- Mehta, Hershel -- Patenaude, Brian -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Kalanithi, Paul -- Etkin, Amit -- Knutson, Brian -- Glover, Gary H -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F31MH105151_01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P41 EB015891/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- R00 MH097822/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):aac9698. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9698.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Brain Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. deissero@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26722001" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anhedonia/*physiology ; Animals ; Brain Mapping ; Corpus Striatum/cytology/drug effects/*physiology ; Depressive Disorder/physiopathology ; Dopamine/pharmacology ; Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects/*physiology ; Female ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Mesencephalon/cytology/drug effects/physiology ; *Motivation ; Nerve Net/physiology ; Oxygen/blood ; Prefrontal Cortex/cytology/drug effects/*physiology ; Rats ; Rats, Inbred LEC ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; *Reward ; Schizophrenia/physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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