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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects small foci of respiratory epithelial cells via infected droplets. Infection induces expression of type I and III interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines, the balance of which may restrict viral replication and affect disease severity. We explored this balance by infecting two respiratory epithelial cell lines with low doses of recombinant RSV expressing green fluorescent protein (rgRSV). A549 cells were highly permissive, whereas BEAS-2B cells restricted infection to individual cells or small foci. After infection, A549 cells expressed higher levels of IFN-β-, IFN--, and NF-B-inducible proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, BEAS-2B cells expressed higher levels of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes, pattern recognition receptors, and other signaling intermediaries constitutively and after infection. Transcriptome analysis revealed that constitutive expression of antiviral and proinflammatory genes predicted responses by each cell line. These two cell lines provide a model for elucidating critical mediators of local control of viral infection in respiratory epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Airway epithelium is both the primary target of and the first defense against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Whether RSV replicates and spreads to adjacent epithelial cells depends on the quality of their innate immune responses. A549 and BEAS-2B are alveolar and bronchial epithelial cell lines, respectively, that are often used to study RSV infection. We show that A549 cells are permissive to RSV infection and express genes characteristic of a proinflammatory response. In contrast, BEAS-2B cells restrict infection and express genes characteristic of an antiviral response associated with expression of type I and III interferons. Transcriptome analysis of constitutive gene expression revealed patterns that may predict the response of each cell line to infection. This study suggests that restrictive and permissive cell lines may provide a model for identifying critical mediators of local control of infection and stresses the importance of the constitutive antiviral state for the response to viral challenge.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: Photosynthesis, a process catalysed by plants, algae and cyanobacteria converts sunlight to energy thus sustaining all higher life on Earth. Two large membrane protein complexes, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII), act in series to catalyse the light-driven reactions in photosynthesis. PSII catalyses the light-driven water splitting process, which maintains the Earth's oxygenic atmosphere. In this process, the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII cycles through five states, S0 to S4, in which four electrons are sequentially extracted from the OEC in four light-driven charge-separation events. Here we describe time resolved experiments on PSII nano/microcrystals from Thermosynechococcus elongatus performed with the recently developed technique of serial femtosecond crystallography. Structures have been determined from PSII in the dark S1 state and after double laser excitation (putative S3 state) at 5 and 5.5 A resolution, respectively. The results provide evidence that PSII undergoes significant conformational changes at the electron acceptor side and at the Mn4CaO5 core of the OEC. These include an elongation of the metal cluster, accompanied by changes in the protein environment, which could allow for binding of the second substrate water molecule between the more distant protruding Mn (referred to as the 'dangler' Mn) and the Mn3CaOx cubane in the S2 to S3 transition, as predicted by spectroscopic and computational studies. This work shows the great potential for time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography for investigation of catalytic processes in biomolecules.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kupitz, Christopher -- Basu, Shibom -- Grotjohann, Ingo -- Fromme, Raimund -- Zatsepin, Nadia A -- Rendek, Kimberly N -- Hunter, Mark S -- Shoeman, Robert L -- White, Thomas A -- Wang, Dingjie -- James, Daniel -- Yang, Jay-How -- Cobb, Danielle E -- Reeder, Brenda -- Sierra, Raymond G -- Liu, Haiguang -- Barty, Anton -- Aquila, Andrew L -- Deponte, Daniel -- Kirian, Richard A -- Bari, Sadia -- Bergkamp, Jesse J -- Beyerlein, Kenneth R -- Bogan, Michael J -- Caleman, Carl -- Chao, Tzu-Chiao -- Conrad, Chelsie E -- Davis, Katherine M -- Fleckenstein, Holger -- Galli, Lorenzo -- Hau-Riege, Stefan P -- Kassemeyer, Stephan -- Laksmono, Hartawan -- Liang, Mengning -- Lomb, Lukas -- Marchesini, Stefano -- Martin, Andrew V -- Messerschmidt, Marc -- Milathianaki, Despina -- Nass, Karol -- Ros, Alexandra -- Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi -- Schmidt, Kevin -- Seibert, Marvin -- Steinbrener, Jan -- Stellato, Francesco -- Yan, Lifen -- Yoon, Chunhong -- Moore, Thomas A -- Moore, Ana L -- Pushkar, Yulia -- Williams, Garth J -- Boutet, Sebastien -- Doak, R Bruce -- Weierstall, Uwe -- Frank, Matthias -- Chapman, Henry N -- Spence, John C H -- Fromme, Petra -- 1R01GM095583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM095583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 11;513(7517):261-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13453. Epub 2014 Jul 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2]. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA. ; Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA. ; Max-Planck-Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; Stanford PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [2] European XFEL GmbH, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; 1] Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [2] Linac Coherent Light Source, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA [2] Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; 1] Max Planck Advanced Study Group, Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [2] Max-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. ; 1] Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [2] Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Regementsvagen 1, SE-752 37 Uppsala, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Pkwy Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2, Canada. ; Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA. ; 1] Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [2] University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA. ; 1] Max-Planck-Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany [2] Max Planck Advanced Study Group, Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; 1] Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [2] Department ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, Department of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC 3010, Australia. ; Linac Coherent Light Source, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Max-Planck-Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany [2] Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [3] University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany. ; 1] Linac Coherent Light Source, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA [2] Uppsala University, Sankt Olofsgatan 10B, 753 12 Uppsala, Sweden. ; 1] Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [2] University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany [3] Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25043005" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cyanobacteria/*chemistry ; *Models, Molecular ; Photosystem II Protein Complex/*chemistry ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-07-15
    Description: The carnivoran giant panda has a specialized bamboo diet, to which its alimentary tract is poorly adapted. Measurements of daily energy expenditure across five captive and three wild pandas averaged 5.2 megajoules (MJ)/day, only 37.7% of the predicted value (13.8 MJ/day). For the wild pandas, the mean was 6.2 MJ/day, or 45% of the mammalian expectation. Pandas achieve this exceptionally low expenditure in part by reduced sizes of several vital organs and low physical activity. In addition, circulating levels of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) averaged 46.9 and 64%, respectively, of the levels expected for a eutherian mammal of comparable size. A giant panda-unique mutation in the DUOX2 gene, critical for thyroid hormone synthesis, might explain these low thyroid hormone levels. A combination of morphological, behavioral, physiological, and genetic adaptations, leading to low energy expenditure, likely enables giant pandas to survive on a bamboo diet.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nie, Yonggang -- Speakman, John R -- Wu, Qi -- Zhang, Chenglin -- Hu, Yibo -- Xia, Maohua -- Yan, Li -- Hambly, Catherine -- Wang, Lu -- Wei, Wei -- Zhang, Jinguo -- Wei, Fuwen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 10;349(6244):171-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aab2413.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. ; Beijing Key Laboratory of Captive Wildlife Technologies, Beijing Zoo, Beijing, China. ; Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. ; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. ; Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. weifw@ioz.ac.cn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160943" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Body Temperature ; Cattle ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics ; Diet/veterinary ; Dogs ; *Eating ; Energy Metabolism/genetics/*physiology ; Gastrointestinal Tract ; Genetic Variation ; Humans ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Motor Activity ; NADPH Oxidase/*genetics ; Organ Size ; Sasa ; Thyroxine/blood ; Triiodothyronine/blood ; Ursidae/anatomy & histology/*genetics/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-03
    Description: Quantum oscillations are usually the manifestation of the underlying physical nature in condensed matter systems. Here, we report a new type of log-periodic quantum oscillations in ultraquantum three-dimensional topological materials. Beyond the quantum limit (QL), we observe the log-periodic oscillations involving up to five oscillating cycles (five peaks and five dips) on the magnetoresistance of high-quality single-crystal ZrTe 5 , virtually showing the clearest feature of discrete scale invariance (DSI). Further, theoretical analyses show that the two-body quasi-bound states can be responsible for the DSI feature. Our work provides a new perspective on the ground state of topological materials beyond the QL.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-08-01
    Description: DNA methylation is a crucial element in the epigenetic regulation of mammalian embryonic development. However, its dynamic patterns have not been analysed at the genome scale in human pre-implantation embryos due to technical difficulties and the scarcity of required materials. Here we systematically profile the methylome of human early embryos from the zygotic stage through to post-implantation by reduced representation bisulphite sequencing and whole-genome bisulphite sequencing. We show that the major wave of genome-wide demethylation is complete at the 2-cell stage, contrary to previous observations in mice. Moreover, the demethylation of the paternal genome is much faster than that of the maternal genome, and by the end of the zygotic stage the genome-wide methylation level in male pronuclei is already lower than that in female pronuclei. The inverse correlation between promoter methylation and gene expression gradually strengthens during early embryonic development, reaching its peak at the post-implantation stage. Furthermore, we show that active genes, with the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) mark at the promoter regions in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells, are essentially devoid of DNA methylation in both mature gametes and throughout pre-implantation development. Finally, we also show that long interspersed nuclear elements or short interspersed nuclear elements that are evolutionarily young are demethylated to a milder extent compared to older elements in the same family and have higher abundance of transcripts, indicating that early embryos tend to retain higher residual methylation at the evolutionarily younger and more active transposable elements. Our work provides insights into the critical features of the methylome of human early embryos, as well as its functional relation to the regulation of gene expression and the repression of transposable elements.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Guo, Hongshan -- Zhu, Ping -- Yan, Liying -- Li, Rong -- Hu, Boqiang -- Lian, Ying -- Yan, Jie -- Ren, Xiulian -- Lin, Shengli -- Li, Junsheng -- Jin, Xiaohu -- Shi, Xiaodan -- Liu, Ping -- Wang, Xiaoye -- Wang, Wei -- Wei, Yuan -- Li, Xianlong -- Guo, Fan -- Wu, Xinglong -- Fan, Xiaoying -- Yong, Jun -- Wen, Lu -- Xie, Sunney X -- Tang, Fuchou -- Qiao, Jie -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 31;511(7511):606-10. doi: 10.1038/nature13544. Epub 2014 Jul 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center &Center for Reproductive Medicine, College of Life Sciences, Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2]. ; 1] Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center &Center for Reproductive Medicine, College of Life Sciences, Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2] Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [3]. ; 1] Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center &Center for Reproductive Medicine, College of Life Sciences, Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2] Key Laboratory of Assisted Reproduction, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100191, China [3]. ; Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center &Center for Reproductive Medicine, College of Life Sciences, Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; 1] Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center &Center for Reproductive Medicine, College of Life Sciences, Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2] Key Laboratory of Assisted Reproduction, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100191, China. ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China. ; 1] Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center &Center for Reproductive Medicine, College of Life Sciences, Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2] Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; 1] Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center &Center for Reproductive Medicine, College of Life Sciences, Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2] Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Beijing 100871, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25079557" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *DNA Methylation ; DNA Transposable Elements/genetics ; Embryo, Mammalian ; Embryonic Stem Cells/physiology ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Germ Cells/metabolism ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-12-22
    Description: Meiotic recombination creates genetic diversity and ensures segregation of homologous chromosomes. Previous population analyses yielded results averaged among individuals and affected by evolutionary pressures. We sequenced 99 sperm from an Asian male by using the newly developed amplification method-multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles-to phase the personal genome and map recombination events at high resolution, which are nonuniformly distributed across the genome in the absence of selection pressure. The paucity of recombination near transcription start sites observed in individual sperm indicates that such a phenomenon is intrinsic to the molecular mechanism of meiosis. Interestingly, a decreased crossover frequency combined with an increase of autosomal aneuploidy is observable on a global per-sperm basis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590491/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590491/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lu, Sijia -- Zong, Chenghang -- Fan, Wei -- Yang, Mingyu -- Li, Jinsen -- Chapman, Alec R -- Zhu, Ping -- Hu, Xuesong -- Xu, Liya -- Yan, Liying -- Bai, Fan -- Qiao, Jie -- Tang, Fuchou -- Li, Ruiqiang -- Xie, X Sunney -- HG005097-1/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG005613-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG005097/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005613/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Dec 21;338(6114):1627-30. doi: 10.1126/science.1229112.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23258895" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aneuploidy ; Chromosome Segregation ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; Crossing Over, Genetic ; *Genome, Human ; Haplotypes ; Heterozygote ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; Male ; *Meiosis ; Middle Aged ; *Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques ; *Recombination, Genetic ; Sequence Analysis, DNA/*methods ; Single-Cell Analysis ; Spermatozoa/*physiology ; Transcription Initiation Site
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-01-14
    Description: Massive clusters of galaxies have been found that date from as early as 3.9 billion years (3.9 Gyr; z = 1.62) after the Big Bang, containing stars that formed at even earlier epochs. Cosmological simulations using the current cold dark matter model predict that these systems should descend from 'protoclusters'-early overdensities of massive galaxies that merge hierarchically to form a cluster. These protocluster regions themselves are built up hierarchically and so are expected to contain extremely massive galaxies that can be observed as luminous quasars and starbursts. Observational evidence for this picture, however, is sparse because high-redshift protoclusters are rare and difficult to observe. Here we report a protocluster region that dates from 1 Gyr (z = 5.3) after the Big Bang. This cluster of massive galaxies extends over more than 13 megaparsecs and contains a luminous quasar as well as a system rich in molecular gas. These massive galaxies place a lower limit of more than 4 x 10(11) solar masses of dark and luminous matter in this region, consistent with that expected from cosmological simulations for the earliest galaxy clusters.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Capak, Peter L -- Riechers, Dominik -- Scoville, Nick Z -- Carilli, Chris -- Cox, Pierre -- Neri, Roberto -- Robertson, Brant -- Salvato, Mara -- Schinnerer, Eva -- Yan, Lin -- Wilson, Grant W -- Yun, Min -- Civano, Francesca -- Elvis, Martin -- Karim, Alexander -- Mobasher, Bahram -- Staguhn, Johannes G -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 10;470(7333):233-5. doi: 10.1038/nature09681. Epub 2011 Jan 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Spitzer Science Centre, 314-6 California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. capak@astro.caltech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21228776" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Artemisia annua produces the valuable medicinal component, artemisinin, which is a sesquiterpene lactone widely used in malaria treatment. AaORA, a homolog of CrORCA3, which is involved in activating terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus , is a jasmonate (JA)–responsive and trichome-specific APETALA2/ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR that plays a pivotal role in artemisinin biosynthesis. However, the JA signaling mechanism underlying AaORA-mediated artemisinin biosynthesis remains enigmatic. Here, we report that AaORA forms a transcriptional activator complex with AaTCP14 (TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR 14), which is also predominantly expressed in trichomes. AaORA and AaTCP14 synergistically bind to and activate the promoters of two genes, double bond reductase 2 ( DBR2 ) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 ( ALDH1 ), both of which encode enzymes vital for artemisinin biosynthesis. AaJAZ8, a repressor of the JA signaling pathway, interacts with both AaTCP14 and AaORA and represses the ability of the AaTCP14-AaORA complex to activate the DBR2 promoter. JA treatment induces AaJAZ8 degradation, allowing the AaTCP14-AaORA complex to subsequently activate the expression of DBR2 , which is essential for artemisinin biosynthesis. These data suggest that JA activation of the AaTCP14-AaORA complex regulates artemisinin biosynthesis. Together, our findings reveal a novel artemisinin biosynthetic pathway regulatory network and provide new insight into how specialized metabolism is modulated by the JA signaling pathway in plants.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-06-26
    Description: The rest-frame ultraviolet properties of galaxies during the first three billion years of cosmic time (redshift z 〉 4) indicate a rapid evolution in the dust obscuration of such galaxies. This evolution implies a change in the average properties of the interstellar medium, but the measurements are systematically uncertain owing to untested assumptions and the inability to detect heavily obscured regions of the galaxies. Previous attempts to measure the interstellar medium directly in normal galaxies at these redshifts have failed for a number of reasons, with two notable exceptions. Here we report measurements of the forbidden C ii emission (that is, [C II]) from gas, and the far-infrared emission from dust, in nine typical star-forming galaxies about one billion years after the Big Bang (z approximately 5-6). We find that these galaxies have thermal emission that is less than 1/12 that of similar systems about two billion years later, and enhanced [C II] emission relative to the far-infrared continuum, confirming a strong evolution in the properties of the interstellar medium in the early Universe. The gas is distributed over scales of one to eight kiloparsecs, and shows diverse dynamics within the sample. These results are consistent with early galaxies having significantly less dust than typical galaxies seen at z 〈 3 and being comparable in dust content to local low-metallicity systems.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Capak, P L -- Carilli, C -- Jones, G -- Casey, C M -- Riechers, D -- Sheth, K -- Carollo, C M -- Ilbert, O -- Karim, A -- LeFevre, O -- Lilly, S -- Scoville, N -- Smolcic, V -- Yan, L -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jun 25;522(7557):455-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14500.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125, USA [2] California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; 1] National Radio Astronomy Observatory, PO Box 0, Socorro, New Mexico 87801, USA [2] Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK. ; New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, New Mexico 87801, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, Texas 78712, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. ; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA. ; Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille, France. ; Argelander-Institut fur Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany. ; California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; Physics Department, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka cesta 32, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108853" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-06
    Description: The modern Indian summer monsoon (ISM) is characterized by exceptionally strong interhemispheric transport, indicating the importance of both Northern and Southern Hemisphere processes driving monsoon variability. Here, we present a high-resolution continental record from southwestern China that demonstrates the importance of interhemispheric forcing in driving ISM variability at the glacial-interglacial time scale as well. Interglacial ISM maxima are dominated by an enhanced Indian low associated with global ice volume minima. In contrast, the glacial ISM reaches a minimum, and actually begins to increase, before global ice volume reaches a maximum. We attribute this early strengthening to an increased cross-equatorial pressure gradient derived from Southern Hemisphere high-latitude cooling. This mechanism explains much of the nonorbital scale variance in the Pleistocene ISM record.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉An, Zhisheng -- Clemens, Steven C -- Shen, Ji -- Qiang, Xiaoke -- Jin, Zhangdong -- Sun, Youbin -- Prell, Warren L -- Luo, Jingjia -- Wang, Sumin -- Xu, Hai -- Cai, Yanjun -- Zhou, Weijian -- Liu, Xiaodong -- Liu, Weiguo -- Shi, Zhengguo -- Yan, Libin -- Xiao, Xiayun -- Chang, Hong -- Wu, Feng -- Ai, Li -- Lu, Fengyan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 5;333(6043):719-23. doi: 10.1126/science.1203752.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710075, China. anzs@loess.llqg.ac.cn〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21817044" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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