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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: propranolol ; cirrhosis ; haemodynamic effects ; dose-response ; blood level variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifty-two patients with cirrhosis receiving continuous administration of propranolol in doses reducing the heart rate by 25% were studied. The doses and plasma levels varied widely — 185±98 mg/day (mean ± SD) and 208±153 ng/ml, respectively. These values were significantly correlated. No significant correlation was found between the dose of the drug or plasma level and the liver function tests. Although propranolol significantly decreased cardiac output and the hepatic venous pressure gradient, no correlation was found between drug dose or plasma level and these haemodynamic effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Intensive care medicine 14 (1988), S. 97-99 
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pflügers Archiv 387 (1980), S. 67-68 
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Hepatic vein ; Catheterization ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A procedure for catheterization of a right hepatic vein is described in the rat. The procedure is based on the observation that, when the posterior half of the body is bent to the left, a right hepatic vein is aligned with the axis of anterior vena cava and posterior vena cava. A catheter, inserted in the right jugular vein and fitted with a rectilinear mandrel, is guided into the right auricle, the suprahepatic segment of posterior vena cava and a right hepatic vein. Successful catheterization of a right hepatic vein has been obtained in 47 out of 50 animals in which the procedure has been performed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Hepatic blood flow ; Hepatic clearance ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two new methods are described to measure hepatic blood flow in the anaesthetized rat. These methods are based on the fractional clearance and extraction of indocyanine green, which is removed by hepatocytes, and of colloidal radiogold, which is removed by Kupffer cells. Hepatic blood flow was found to be 2.11±0.35 ml·min−1·g liver−1 (mean ±SD) and 2.01±0.31 ml·min−1·g liver−1, respectively, with these two substances (P〉0.80).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of propranolol (a non-selective β-adrenergic antagonist), octreotide (a long-acting somatostatin analogue), or a combination of these substances on splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics and arterial blood gases in rats with portal vein stenosis. Methods: Splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics were measured using the radioactive microspheres method. Eight rats first received an i.v. infusion of isotonic saline (10 μL/min for 15 min) and then an i.v. infusion of octreotide (8 μg.h/kg for 15 min). Eight other rats first received a bolus i.v. injection of propranolol (2 mg) and an i.v. infusion of octreotide 15 min later. Results: Propranolol or octreotide alone significantly decreased portal pressure (both by 23%), portal tributary blood flow (35 and 10%, respectively) and cardiac index (36 and 26%, respectively). Octreotide administration in rats pretreated with propranolol significantly decreased cardiac index but did not change portal and arterial pressures or portal tributary blood flow. Propranolol significantly increased arterial oxygen tension. Octreotide alone or combined with propranolol significantly decreased oxyhaemoglobin saturation and pH and increased carbon dioxide tension. Conclusions: In rats with portal vein stenosis, the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, accentuates the short-term decrease in cardiac index due to propranolol. In addition, octreotide altered arterial blood gases and acid-base status. In contrast, octreotide does not further decrease portal pressure in animals receiving propranolol.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a severe complication of cirrhosis that develops in the final phase of the disease. Two types of HRS exist. Type 1 is defined by a rapid reduction of renal function and in type 2 HRS the reduction of renal function is slowly progressive. Type 1 HRS is diagnosed when the serum creatinine level increases by more than 50% of the baseline value to above 133 µmol/L. According to the International Ascites Club, HRS is defined by the presence of five criteria: (1) severe cirrhosis; (2) glomerular hypofiltration; (3) no other functional or organic causes; (4) failure of plasma volume expansion; (5) no proteinuria. Additional diagnostic criteria may be present. The diagnosis of HRS may be difficult in patients with severe cirrhosis. Other types of acute renal failure may occur. For example, ischaemic or toxic tubular necrosis or sepsis may cause renal failure in these patients. Furthermore, uncontrolled HRS may lead to ischaemic tubular necrosis; thus, these patients must be managed as soon as possible in an intensive care unit.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Vasoconstrictor agents such as terlipressin (Glypressin®) have been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), in terms of improving renal function and subsequent survival rates. Patients with HRS have also been shown to have improved survival after liver transplantation if they receive terlipressin treatment prior to transplantation. In addition, studies show that terlipressin may have beneficial effects in treating other indications, including paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction and endotoxic shock. A positive effect has also been demonstrated with vasopressin in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An enhancement of the haemodynamic effects of terlipressin by octreotide (and vice versa) may be useful in the treatment of portal hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of terlipressin, octreotide or a combination of these substances on splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics in rats with portal vein stenosis.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods:Eight rats received an intravenous (i.v.) infusion of isotonic saline (10 μL/min for 15 min). Eight rats received terlipressin first (0.05 mg/kg) and then an i.v. infusion of octreotide (8 μg.h/kg for 15 min) 15 min later. Eight other rats first received an i.v. infusion of octreotide and then terlipressin 15 min later. Splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics (radioactive microsphere method) were measured after saline, after terlipressin or octreotide alone, and after the combined treatments.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Results:Terlipressin and octreotide alone significantly decreased portal pressure, portal tributary blood flowand cardiac index. Terlipressin, but not octreotide, significantly increased heptocollateral vascular resistance and arterial pressure. Octreotide administration in rats pre-treated with terlipressin did not change portal pressure, caused portal tributary blood flow to increase and decreased hepatocollateral vascular resistance; it also decreased arterial pressure but not cardiac index. Terlipressin administration in rats pre-treated with octreotide further decreased portal pressure, portal tributary blood flow and increased hepatocollateral vascular resistance; terlipressin increased arterial pressure and further decreased cardiac index.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusions:In rats with portal vein stenosis, octreotide decreased short-term splanchnic and systemic vasoconstriction due to terlipressin. In contrast, terlipressin enhanced the splanchnic and systemic vasoconstriction due to octreotide. Thus, the haemodynamic responses to the combination of octreotide and terlipressin depend on the order of administration of these substances.
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