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  • 1
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Background:  Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is the most common urological disease in adult men. Antibiotic therapy is the gold standard of treatment. However, long-term therapy resulted in many side-effects and bacterial resistance. Because of these reasons, we need new treatment modality that could replace traditional antibiotic therapy. Catechin, an extract of green tea, has antimicrobial effect against various bacteria and synergy effect to antibiotics. We evaluate the synergistic effects of catechin on the treatment of CBP in an animal model.Methods:  An experimental CBP model was induced in 70 male Wistar rats by instillation of 0.2 mL bacterial suspension (E-coli Z17, O2:K1:H-) containing 1 × 108 CFU/mL into the prostatic urethra. Microbiologically and histologically proven CBP model was demonstrated in 58.6% (41 of 70) of the rats after 4 weeks of bacterial instillation. The 41 rats demonstrating CBP were randomly divided into four groups; the control, catechin, ciprofloxacin and catechin with ciprofloxacin groups. All drug treatments were conducted over a period of 2 weeks. After treatment, the results were analyzed with microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate and urine samples to compare each group.Results:  Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate and urine samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in all three experimental groups compared with the control group. The catechin group showed coherent trends of decrease in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group, but not to a statistically significant degree (P 〉 0.05). However, the ciprofloxacin and catechin with ciprofloxacin groups showed statistically significant decreases in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group (P 〈 0.05). The catechin with ciprofloxacin group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the ciprofloxacin group (P 〈 0.05).Conclusions:  These results suggest that catechin may be an effective material in CBP treatment. Particularly, combination treatment of catechin and ciprofloxacin has synergistic effect. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of catechin and ciprofloxacin may be effective in treating CBP with a higher success rate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract : We have isolated a cDNA clone from the nematodeCaenorhabditis elegans that encodes a protein of greatest sequencesimilarity to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. This gene codes for apolypeptide of 682 amino acids containing seven putative transmembranedomains. The amino acid identities, excluding a highly variable middle portionof the third intracellular loop, to the human m1-m5 receptors are 28-34%. Whenthis cloned receptor was coexpressed with a G protein-gated inwardlyrectifying K+ channel (GIRK1) in Xenopus oocyte, acetylcholine was able to elicit the GIRK current. This acetylcholine-induced current was substantially inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine in a reversible manner. However, another muscarinic agonist oxotremorine and antagonists scopolamine and pirenzepine had little or negligible effects on this receptor. Taken together, these results suggest that the cloned gene encodes a G protein-linked acetylcholine receptor that is most similar to but pharmacologically distinct from muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We have previously identified two G protein-linked acetylcholine receptors (GARs), GAR-1 and GAR-3, in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Whereas GAR-3 is a homologue of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), GAR-1 is similar to but pharmacologically distinct from mAChRs. In the current work we isolated a new type of GAR using C. elegans genome sequence information. This receptor, named GAR-2, consists of 614 amino acid residues and has seven putative transmembrane domains. Database searches indicate that GAR-2 is most similar to GAR-1 and closely related to GAR-3/mAChRs. The overall amino acid sequence identities to GAR-1 and GAR-3 are ∼32 and ∼23%, respectively. When GAR-2 was coexpressed with the G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK1) channel in Xenopus oocytes, acetylcholine was able to evoke the GIRK current in a dose-dependent fashion. Oxotremorine, a classical muscarinic agonist, had little effect on the receptor, indicating that GAR-2 is pharmacologically different from mAChRs but rather similar to GAR-1. GAR-2 differs from GAR-1, however, in that it showed virtually no response to muscarinic antagonists such as atropine, scopolamine, and pirenzepine. Expression studies using green fluorescent protein reporter gene fusion revealed that GAR-2 is expressed in a subset of C. elegans neurons, distinct from those expressing GAR-1. Together with our previous reports, this study demonstrates that diverse types of GARs are present in C. elegans.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-6776
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A model for ethanol production from a glucose-maltose mixture has been proposed, which includes a term representing the glucose repression effect on maltose consumption. The model parameters were estimated from batch experimental data. Results of sensitivity analysis on the Monod constants for glucose and maltose, and the repression constant, showed that ±10% changes in these three parameters caused no significant effect on data fitting.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-6784
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Ethanol fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out in a bioreactor equipped with a sintered stainless steel filter to obtain a high cell density as well as a high productivity. With a 100 g glucose/l feed, the maximum yeast concentration was 208 g/L similar to that obtained in external membrane cell recycle cultures. However, with tapioca hydrolysates, treated with activated carbon column, the yeast concentration attained was 42g/L.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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