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  • 1
    Abstract: Reduced cardiac vagal control reflected in low heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with greater risks for cardiac morbidity and mortality. In two-stage meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies for three HRV traits in up to 53,174 individuals of European ancestry, we detect 17 genome-wide significant SNPs in eight loci. HRV SNPs tag non-synonymous SNPs (in NDUFA11 and KIAA1755), expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) (influencing GNG11, RGS6 and NEO1), or are located in genes preferentially expressed in the sinoatrial node (GNG11, RGS6 and HCN4). Genetic risk scores account for 0.9 to 2.6% of the HRV variance. Significant genetic correlation is found for HRV with heart rate (-0.74〈rg〈-0.55) and blood pressure (-0.35〈rg〈-0.20). These findings provide clinically relevant biological insight into heritable variation in vagal heart rhythm regulation, with a key role for genetic variants (GNG11, RGS6) that influence G-protein heterotrimer action in GIRK-channel induced pacemaker membrane hyperpolarization.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28613276
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0022-4596
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Tetrahedron Letters 33 (1992), S. 1225-1226 
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Communications 92 (1994), S. 185-187 
    ISSN: 0038-1098
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: The alarmin cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) play a critical role in asthma pathogenesis by inducing mucosal Th2-type cytokine production. Although environmental exposure to aeroallergens has been proposed as an alarmin trigger in asthma, there has been no systematic parallel study of the effects of allergen exposure on the expression of these cytokines in the airways of human asthmatics. Using single and sequential double immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the numbers and phenotypes of IL-25–, IL-33–, and TSLP-immunoreactive cells in sections of bronchial biopsies from mild atopic asthmatics ( n = 16) before and 24 h after allergen inhalational challenge. Allergen challenge highly increased expression of baseline immunoreactivity for IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP, both in the bronchial epithelium and submucosa ( p 〈 0.001), to a degree that correlated with the extent of the late phase of airway obstruction. Aside from epithelial cells, the principal source of immunoreactivity for all three alarmins, TSLP, and IL-33 immunoreactivity colocalized principally with endothelial cells and mast cells, neutrophils, and fibroblasts, whereas IL-25 immunoreactivity colocalized principally with eosinophils as well as endothelial cells, mast cells, and fibroblasts. The data implicate that allergen challenge directly increases airway alarmin expression in atopic asthmatics to a degree correlating with increase late-phase airway obstruction, affirming these molecules as potential molecular targets for the inhibition of allergen-induced airway inflammation and obstruction.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: Purpose: Previous human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-derived resistance studies were based on ex vivo models, which could not mirror evolutionary expression of HER2 during therapy. To investigate dynamic expression of HER2 and its contribution to developing therapeutic resistance conferred by chromosome aneuploidy, both the HER2 phenotype and chromosome 8 (Chr 8) aneuploidy on circulating tumor cells (CTC) were coexamined in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients. Experimental Design: A total of 115 AGC patients, including 56 of histopathologic HER2 + (hHER2 + ) subjects who received first-line HER2-targeted therapy plus chemotherapy, and 59 of hHER2 – patients who received chemotherapy alone, were prospectively enrolled. Both HER2 phenotype and Chr8 aneuploidy of CTCs in patients were coexamined by HER2-iFISH during therapy. Results: A fluctuated positive HER2 phenotype on CTCs (cHER2 + ) was revealed, showing cHER2 + at different time intervals during treatment. Acquisition of the cHER2 + phenotype in 91.0% of hHER2 + and 76.2% hHER2 – patients was demonstrated to correlate with development of resistance to trastuzumab-targeted therapy for hHER2 + patients and chemotherapy alone for hHER2 – patients. Aneuploid Chr8 was demonstrated to participate in the acquisition of the cHER2 + phenotype, which provides a growth advantage to HER2 + CTCs against therapeutic pressure, leading to the development of therapeutic resistance. Conclusions: Compared with low positivity of conventional histopathologic hHER2 examination routinely performed once, significant higher positivity of cHER2 + on CTCs was observed. Continuously examining cHER2 shows unique advantages with respect to monitoring therapeutic resistance in real time in carcinoma patients. Moreover, contribution of chromosome aneuploidy to the phenotypic evolution of HER2 expression on CTCs may help elucidate underlying mechanisms of developing therapeutic resistance. Clin Cancer Res; 24(21); 5261–71. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-02
    Description: The systematic investigation of gene mutation and expression is important to discover novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancers. Here, we integrated genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to analyze three hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with differential metastatic potentials. The results revealed the profile of the prometastasis metabolism potentially associated with HCC metastasis. The multiomic analysis identified 12 genes with variations at multiple levels from three metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, starch, and sucrose metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. Furthermore, uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 (UGP2), was observed to be persistently up-regulated with increased metastatic potential. UGP2 overexpression promoted cell migration and invasion and enhanced glycogenesis in vitro . The role of UGP2 in metastasis was further confirmed using a tumor xenograft mouse model. Taken together, the compendium of multiomic data provides valuable insights in understanding the roles of shifted cellular metabolism in HCC metastasis.
    Print ISSN: 1535-9476
    Electronic ISSN: 1535-9484
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-20
    Description: The epithelial cytokines IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and IL-25 have been implicated in asthma pathogenesis because they promote Th2-type cytokine synthesis, but their expression is relatively poorly documented in "real-life" human asthma. Using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), we measured airway concentrations of these mediators and compared them with those of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, airway infiltration of neutrophils and eosinophils, and lung function in a large group of asthmatic patients with a range of disease severity ( n = 70) and control subjects ( n = 30). The median BALF concentrations of IL-33, TSLP, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-12p70, but not IL-25, IL-2, or IFN-, were significantly elevated in asthmatics compared with controls ( p 〈 0.05). The concentrations of IL-33 and TSLP, but not IL-25, correlated inversely with the lung function (forced expiratory volume in the first second) of asthmatics (IL-33: r = –0.488, p 〈 0.0001; TSLP: r = –0.565, p 〈 0.0001) independently of corticosteroid therapy. When divided according to disease severity and corticosteroid therapy, all subgroups of asthmatics had elevated median numbers of eosinophils in BALF, whereas the patients with more severe disease who were treated with corticosteroids had higher numbers of neutrophils compared with milder asthmatics not so treated and control subjects ( p 〈 0.05). The data implicate TSLP and IL-33 in the pathogenesis of asthma that is characterized by persistent airway inflammation and impaired lung function despite intensive corticosteroid therapy, highlighting them as potential molecular targets.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-28
    Description: Retapamulin, a semisynthetic pleuromutilin derivative, is exclusively used for the topical short-term medication of impetigo and staphylococcal infections. In the present study, we report that retapamulin is adequately and rapidly metabolized in vitro via various metabolic pathways, such as hydroxylation, including mono-, di-, and trihydroxylation, and demethylation. Like tiamulin and valnemulin, the major metabolic routes of retapamulin were hydroxylation at the 2β and 8α positions of the mutilin moiety. Moreover, in vivo metabolism concurred with the results of the in vitro assays. Additionally, we observed significant interspecies differences in the metabolism of retapamulin. Until now, modifying the side chain was the mainstream method for new drug discovery of the pleuromutilins. This approach, however, could not resolve the low bioavailability and short efficacy of the drugs. Considering the rapid metabolism of the pleuromutilins mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes, we propose that blocking the active metabolic site (C-2 and C-8 motif) or administering the drug in combination with cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitors is a promising pathway in the development of novel pleuromutilin drugs with slow metabolism and long efficacy.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Intra-abdominal adhesion is a common complication after laparotomy. Conventional therapeutic strategies still cannot safely and effectively prevent this disorder. In this study, a combination of chitosan, cellulose, and seaweed polysaccharide (thereafter referred as CCS) was developed to significantly alleviate the formation of postoperative adhesion in rats with abdominal trauma. Transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF- β 1, an important promoter of fibrosis) and its downstream factors—namely, alpha-smooth muscle actin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)—were effectively suppressed by CCS in vivo, and as a result, the activation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, may generate plasmin that is a fibrinolytic factor capable of breaking down fibrin) was significantly promoted, presenting antifibrosis effects of CCS. In addition, the activity of kinases [e.g., transforming growth factor–activated kinase 1 (TAK1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/Stress-activated Protein Kinase (SAPK), and p38] in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inflammation signaling pathway was also significantly suppressed by CCS in vivo, demonstrating anti-inflammatory functions of CCS. The histologic studies further confirmed the role of CCS in the inhibition of fibrosis, collagen deposition, inflammation, and vascular proliferation. These results indicate the clinical potential of CCS in the treatment of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion. CCS may induce both antifibrosis and anti-inflammatory effects, potentially inhibiting the postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion. For antifibrosis effects, the expression of PAI-1 (a key factor for the adhesion formation) can be regulated by different TGF- β 1–associated signaling pathways, such as the Smads/p53 pathway, metalloproteinase/tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases pathway, Mitogen-activated Extracellular signal-regulated Kinase (MEK)/extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway, and Yes-associated protein/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif pathway. Following the downregulation of PAI-1 achieved by CCS, the activation of tPA (which may generate plasmin that is a fibrinolytic factor capable of breaking down fibrin) is significantly promoted. For anti-inflammation effects, CCS may suppress the phosphorylation of classic kinases (e.g., TAK1, JNK, and p38) in the MAPK signaling pathway. In addition to the MAPK pathway, inflammatory pathways, such as Nuclear Factor--gene Binding(NF-B), MEK/ERK, and Ras homologue protein/Rho associated coiled coil forming protein, are associated with the formation of intra-abdominal adhesion. Therefore, the prevention mechanisms of CCS will be further investigated in the future, with a hope of fully understanding of antiadhesion effects.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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