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    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; Germany ; COMMON ; INFORMATION ; SYSTEM ; COHORT ; LONG-TERM ; TISSUE ; prognosis ; tumour ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; MALIGNANCIES ; DATABASE ; REGION ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; REGIONS ; CHILDREN ; PROJECT ; time trends ; EUROPE ; neuroblastoma ; MALIGNANCY ; ONCOLOGY ; CHILDHOOD ; REGISTRY ; RE ; monitoring ; cancer registries ; PATIENT SURVIVAL ; methods ; EXTENT ; population-based ; IMPROVEMENT ; retinoblastoma ; ADOLESCENTS ; ACCIS ; bone tumours ; childhood cancer ; CHILDREN 1978-1997 ; period survival ; PIEDMONT ; POPULATION-BASED SURVIVAL ; soft tissue sarcomas ; UP-TO-DATE ; Wilms' tumour
    Abstract: Background: Prognosis for most types of childhood tumours has improved during the last few decades. In this article we estimate up-to-date period survival for less common, but important childhood malignancies in Europe. Methods: Using the database of the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System we calculated period estimates of 10-year survival for the 1995-1999 period for children aged 0-14 years diagnosed during 1985-1999 with tumours of the sympathetic nervous system (NS), retinoblastoma, renal tumours, bone tumours and soft tissue sarcomas in four European regions. Results: Ten-year period survival for 1995-1999 was 66% in children with tumours of the sympathetic NS, 96% for retinoblastoma, 87% for renal tumours, 58% for bone tumours and 61% for soft tissue sarcomas. The higher period estimates, as compared with cohort and complete estimates indicate recent improvement in survival for tumours of the sympathetic NS and to a lesser extent for retinoblastoma and renal tumours. Region-specific period survival estimates were lowest for Eastern Europe for renal, bone and soft tissue tumours, but not for the other two tumour groups. Conclusion: There have been further improvements in the 1990s in long-term survival of children diagnosed with several malignancies, albeit to a different extent in different European regions
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17804472
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Carboxylic acids ; Citric acid ; Inhibition Kinetics of calcium oxalate crystallization ; Pyrophosphate ; Turbidimetric method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The nucleation and crystal growth of calcium oxalate (CaOx) were studied at pH 5.5 using turbidimetric measurements at 620 nm of suspensions produced by mixing calcium chloride and sodium oxalate (initial conditions: Ca, 3x10-3M; Ox, 0.5x10-3M). CaOx crystallization kinetics were defined first by the induction timet i and then by the slope of turbidity as a function of time during the interval corresponding to a correlation coefficientr 2〉0.99. The technique described requires only a small amount of material, is quick, convenient, and can be used to study inhibitors of CaOx crystallization by comparingt i and the rate of crystal growth in the presence and absence of inhibitors. The effects on CaOx crystal growth of several low molecular weight compounds, i.e. di-and tricarboxylic acids, were examined. The majority of these compounds were inhibitors of crystal growth, the greatest effect being seen with citric acid (50% inhibition in the presence of 1.5x10-3M citric acid), isocitric acid (50% inhibition in the presence of 0.75x10-3M isocitric acid) and pyrophosphate (30% inhibition in presence of 0.15x10-3M pyrophosphate). The inhibitors' behaviour regarding the medium was studied without any assumptions about their possible mechanisms of action. Measurements of ionized calcium before and after the reaction, as well as the observation of crystals by scanning electron microspopy, allowed us to formulate the hypothesis that the effect of citric acid and tartaric acid can be attributed mainly to ion pairing, in contrast to that of pyrophosphate and the other carboxylic acids.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Key words Calcium oxalate ; Nephrolithiasis ; Lactose ; Crystalluria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty male Wistar rats, weighing 150 g, were placed in metabolic cages on a 30% sucrose diet for 7 days, before allocation to two groups: a control group (n = 5) and a lactose group (n = 15). They received respectively a 30% sucrose diet or a 30% lactose diet for 8 weeks, each containing 0.67% calcium and 0.38% phosphorus. After 4 (T1) and 8 (T2) weeks, the serum calcium (Ca) and citrate levels were significantly (P 〈 0.01) higher in rats fed the lactose diet. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity was increased in the lactose group (P 〈 0.01) at T1 and T2. The lactose-rich diet induced an increase in urinary Ca excretion at T1 and T2; citrate excretion was only enhanced at T2 (P 〈 0.001). No difference between the two groups was observed in urinary oxalate (Ox) excretion or creatinine clearance. Crystalluria analysis revealed a marked number (〉300/mm3 at T1 and T2) of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals (COD) in rats fed the lactose-rich diet, whereas no COD crystals were observed in sucrose-fed control rats at any time point. The formation of COD crystals in lactose-fed rats was related to an increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) product (pCaOx), which was respectively 12.6 vs 3.9 at T1 and 10.5 vs 1.8 at T2, and an increase in CaOx ratio (Ca/Ox), which was 99.1 vs 7.5 and 67.5 vs 18.5 at T1 and T2, respectively. The high pCaOx and Ca/Ox ratios in the lactose group were due to hypercalciuria, in agreement with the number and the type of crystals. The present experimental model confirms that the ingestion of a 30% lactose diet increases urinary Ca excretion without changing urinary Ox excretion and shows for the first time that it induces a stable and marked crystalluria composed of COD. Such a non-nephrotoxic and stable model is of interest for the study of CaOx crystal formation secondary to hypercalciuria, and thus afterwards eventually for CaOx nephrolithiasis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Key words Alpha-1-microglobulin ; Calcium oxalate ; Crystallization ; ELISA ; Human ; Urine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the past few years, alpha-1-microglobulin (α1m) has been copurified from human urine with bikunin, a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization in vitro. In this study, we have purified α1m without bikunin contamination and investigated its possible role in CaOx crystallization by in vitro and in vivo studies. Alpha-1m was purified with an anti-α1m antibodies CNBr-activated sepharose column. Two molecular species of α1m of respectively 30 and 60 kDa were purified. For each protein, two blots of 30 and 60 kDa cross-reacted with anti-α1m antibodies, suggesting that these two forms were derived one from the other. Both protein species inhibited CaOx crystallization in a dose-dependent manner in two in vitro tests. In the first test, the presence of α1m of 30 kDa (8 μg/ml) in a medium containing 0.76 mM CaCl2 (with 45Ca) and 0.76 mM Ox(NH4)2 inhibited CaOx crystallization by 38% as estimated by supernatant radioactivity after 1 h of agitation. In the second test, CaOx kinetics were examined for 3 to 10 min in a turbidimetric model at 620 nm. The presence of α1m of 30 kDa in a medium containing 4 mM CaCl2 and 0.5 mM Na2Ox inhibited CaOx crystallization by 41.5%, as estimated by the slope modification of turbidimetric curve. Alpha-1m can be considered as another inhibitor of urinary CaOx crystal formation, as shown by the present in vitro studies. Using an ELISA assay, we found that urinary α1m concentration was significantly lower in 31 CaOx stone formers than in 18 healthy subjects (2.95 ± 0.29 vs 5.34 ± 1.08 mg/l respectively, P = 0.01). The decreased concentration of α1m in CaOx stone formers could be responsible in these patients, at least in part, for an increased risk of CaOx crystalluria.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Calcium oxalate crystallization ; Nephrolithiasis ; Uronic-acid-rich protein ; Glycosaminoglycans ; Chromatography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We recently reported that human urine contains a newly identified urinary glycoprotein acting as a potent inhibitor against calcium oxalate crystallization. This inhibitor is a uronic-acid-rich protein (UAP) with a molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa. In the present study, UAP was isolated from urine of stone formers and of subjects without a stone history, and its inhibitory activity was tested in a calcium oxalate crystallization system in vitro. Our results show a weaker inhibitory activity of UAP extracted from the urine of stone formers than that extracted from the urine of healthy subjects. Preliminary analyses of amino acid and carbohydrate content showed some differences between the two groups. The main difference was the reduction in sialic acid in UAP isolated from the urine of stone formers. We suggest that UAP contributes significantly to total urinary inhibitory activity of calcium oxalate crystallization and that the decrease in this activity in the urine of recurrent stone formers is due, in part, to the weak inhibitory activity of UAP. A structural abnormality of UAP could explain the diminution of its inhibitory activity in the urine of stone formers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Epidemiology ; Urinary stones ; Infrared analysis ; Sex- and age-related composition ; False calculi ; Hypercalciuria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A series of 10 617 calculi were analyzed by stereomicroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. This first study of French calculi was compared with large series in the literature. That the frequency of pure calculi was the lowest ever observed can be related to the methodology routinely used in our laboratory, which includes microsampling. We described more than 70 components among the 10 617 calculi. The overall sex ratio male to female patients was high (2.27) and increased over the period 1981–1993. Calcium oxalate was the most frequent component (86.48%), followed by calcium phosphate (79.75%) and purines (18.64%). We found a low occurrence of “infection” stones. The sex ratio was related to stone composition and differed according to the main component. For instance, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was more frequent in men than in women, with a sex ratio of 4.97 versus 2.57 for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). On the contrary, calcium phosphate was more frequent in female patients (sex ratio 0.72 versus overall ratio). The high frequency of COD calculi (23.17%) suggests that hypercalciuria is particularly frequent in French patients susceptible to stone formation. For each main component, a specific profile was observed in relation to the sex and age of the patients with stones.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Keywords Bikunin ; Calcium oxalate ; Crystallization ; Stone formers ; Urine and ELISA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two proteins of 17 and 24 kDa, respectively, which were immunologically related to bikunin, were purified from urine of healthy men, using in the last step a trypsin CNBr-sepharose affinity column. These proteins strongly inhibited calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization in two in vitro models. In the first model, the presence of 8 μg/ml protein in a medium containing 0.76 mM CaCl2 (with 45Ca) and 0.76 mM ammonium oxalate inhibited the crystallization process by 80%, as estimated by supernatant radioactivity after 60 min of incubation. A similar inhibition was observed in the second turbidimetric model, where the CaOx crystallization kinetics were followed for 10 min at 620 nm in a medium containing 4 mM CaCl2 and 0.5 mM Na2Ox. These proteins were used as standard protein for the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in urine. Mean (± SEM) urinary bikunin concentration in 18 healthy subjects was 5.01 ± 0.91 μg/ml. This was a concentration range of strong inhibitory activity in vitro. Bikunin values were nearly 50% lower (2.54 ± 0.42 μg/ml, P=0.007) in 31 CaOx renal stone formers (having weddelite crystals in their first morning urine) than in the healthy volunteers. A correlation was found between urinary bikunin and alpha-1 microglobulin concentrations in the control group (y=0.73x + 1.09, r 2=0.8) while no such correlation existed in the lithiasis group. In conclusion, bikunin exerts a strong inhibitory action of CaOx crystallization in vitro. Its involvement in urinary CaOx crystallization of stone formers is highly probable, based on the significant decrease in its urinary concentration in the majority of stone formers studied.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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