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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma ; Epstein-Barr virus ; Epstein-Barr virus RNA in situ ; Polymerase chain reaction ; Renal transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The clinical and histological findings in a 54-year-old patient with enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) occurring 18 years after renal transplantation are presented. Ten years after adult-onset coeliac disease the patient developed medium to large T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the small intestine. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the lymphoma tissue and localized via Epstein-Barr virus RNAs in situ hybridization to some of the tumour cells. This is the first case report of EBV-positive EATL occuring in the setting of immunosuppression.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 410 (1987), S. 189-194 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Colonic polyp (mixed) ; Cell differentiation ; Adenoma ; Hyperplasia ; Antigens-neoplasm ; Immunoenzyme technics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A small colonic polyp which was composed of equal parts of hyperplastic and adenomatous tissue sharing a common basement membrane, displayed a paradoxical distribution of immunohistological markers: In contrast with the neoplastic component, the hyperplastic tissue lacked signs of functional maturity (IgA, secretory component) and displayed markers associated with carcinoma (carcinoembryonic antigen, peanut-agglutinin binding).
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 431 (1997), S. 337-344 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Apoptosis ; TUNEL ; Hepatocytes ; Alcoholic liver disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Alcohol-induced damage to the liver results in a wide array of typical alterations. Whereas the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of fatty change, hepatocyte ballooning, Mallory body formation and fibrosis have been studied in detail, little is known about hepatocyte apoptosis in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In this retrospective study we analysed parenchymal cell death in ALD systematically by the use of in situ DNA nick-end labelling (ISEL/TUNEL). We show that increased hepatocyte TdT labelling occurs in ALD. Labelling is observed more frequently in parenchymal areas exhibiting advanced damage (ballooning degeneration with or without Mallory bodies, cholestasis and perisinusoidal fibrosis). In addition, hepatocyte TdT labelling is higher where there is septal fibrosis and nodular remodelling. Conversely, it is not elevated in ballooning hepatocytes themselves, but rather in the apparently normal hepatocytes in their vicinity.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Somatostatin ; Octreotide ; Lung carcinoma ; Small cell lung carcinoma ; Scintigraphy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We evaluated octreotide scintigraphy in 81 untreated patients who were suspected of having bronchial carcinoma. Octreotide scintigraphy visualized the primary tumour in all of 40 patients with non-smallcell lung carcinoma (non-SCLC), and all of 26 patients with SCLC. In the remaining patients, other bronchial disease and metastases from extrapulmonary carcinomas were also visualized. Mediastinal lymph node involvement and distant metastases were recognized in 5 of 15 and 1 of 7 patients with non-SCLC, respectively. In vitro, none of the non-SCLCs were shown to bear somatostatin receptors. We postulate that the visualization of non-SCLC during octreotide scintigraphy is caused by binding of labelled octreotide to activated leucocytes or to proliferating neuroendocrine cells around the tumours. In patients with SCLC, radiologically suspected lymph node involvement was visualized for 21 of 25 sites. Distant metastases, especially to the liver and abdomen, were missed for 14 of 20 sites, most probably because no laxatives were administered and single photon emission tomography of the abdomen was not performed. The failure to recognize liver metastases is most probably due to a comparable uptake of radioactivity by the surrounding normal liver tissue. In 15 of 26 patients, previously unrecognized tumour sites were suggested during octreotide scintigraphy, leading to a downstaging of 5 of 14 patients with limited disease. Unexpected cerebral metastases were suggested in five patients with either limited or extensive disease. In all four of these for whom follow-up was available, cerebral metastases became manifest 5–8 months after octreotide scintigraphy. We conclude (1) that octreotide scintigraphy is of no use to differentiate SCLC from other lung disease, and (2) that octreotide scintigraphy should be included in the staging procedure of SCLC because it may allow early detection of metastases, especially to the brain.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei Mäusen wurden die Art, die absolute Zahl, der Phagozytosegrad und der in DNS-Synthese befindliche Anteil der Zellen bestimmt, die sich zu verschiedenen Zeiten nach intraperitonäaler Injektion einer Suspension kleiner Polystyren-Partikeln (Durchmesser: 0,796 μ) aus der Bauchhöhle auswaschen ließen. Diese Methode gestattet eine gut reproduzierbare, quantitative Analyse der zellulären Reaktion auf einen nicht-antigenischen Stimulus. An dem Geschehen beteiligt sich eine heterogene Population von Phagozyten, die neben Granulozyten zahlreiche sog. mononukleäre Elemente umfaßt. Die letzteren lassen sich morphologisch, färberisch und auf Grund ihres kinetischen Verhaltens in mehrere Untergruppen unterteilen, nämlich: monozytoide Zellen mit nierenförmigem Kern, die weitgehend den Blutmonozyten gleichen; ferner monozytoide Zellen mit rundem Kern sowie lymphomonozytoide Elemente und größere lymphoide Zellen. Zu geringfügiger Phagozytose der Partikeln ist auch ein Teil der kleinen Lymphozyten befähigt. Beurteilt am Anstieg der absoluten Zellzahl, treten nach Stimulation die neutrophilen Granulozyten am raschesten in die freie Bauchhöhle aus, gefolgt von den kleinen Lymphozyten, dann den monozytoiden Zellen mit nierenförmigem Kern und andern Zellarten. In der Zeit zwischen 16 und 24 Std nach Injektion der Partikelsuspension nahm die Zahl der kleinen Lymphozyten signifikant ab, während in derselben Periode diejenige der größeren lymphoiden Zellen und der monozytoiden Elemente mit nierenförmigem Kern steiler anstieg. Mit Ausnahme der kleinen Lymphozyten fanden sich unter allen Gruppen sog. mononukleärer Zellen solche, die sich initial mit Thymidin-3H markieren ließen. Ein signifikanter Anstieg des initialen Markierungsindex (Maximalwert: 20%) über die Kontrollwerte hinaus zeigte sich indessen nur bei größeren lymphoiden Zellen, und dies nur während der ersten Stunden nach Stimulation. Die lymphomonozytoiden Zellen ließen um den 2. Tag nach Stimulation herum eine angedeutete relative Vermehrung der DNS-synthetisierenden Zellen erkennen. Bei den ändern sog. mononukleären Zellformen fand sich während 10 Tagen nach Stimulation keine verwertbare Änderung des initialen Markierungsindex. Die durchschnittliche Partikelbeladung pro Zelle (Phagozytosegrad) war zu allen Zeiten nach Stimulation bei den monozytoiden Zellen mit rundem Kern am stärksten. Einen etwas niedrigeren Phagozytosegrad wiesen die lymphomonozytoiden Zellen und die monozytoiden mit nierenförmigem Kern auf, die im Durchschnitt pro Einzelzelle eine vergleichbare Phagozytoseleistung vollbrachten. Ein noch geringerer Phagozytosegrad fand sich bei den größeren lymphoiden Zellen, die im Mittel ungefähr gleich viele Partikeln enthielten wie die neutrophilen Granulozyten. Die aus dem Produkt aus mittlerem Phagozytosegrad und absoluter Zellzahl geschätzte totale Phagozytosearbeit ergab während der ersten 8–12 Std nach Stimulation für die neutrophilen Granulozyten die höchsten Werte. Später wurden sie von den monozytoiden Zellen mit nierenförmigem Kern abgelöst, die während der restlichen Versuchsdauer von 10 Tagen die Führung beibehielten. Eine erhebliche Phagozytosearbeit wurde in spätem Stadien nach Injektion der Partikelsuspension auch von den übrigen sog. mononukleären Zellen geleistet, mit Ausnahme der kleinen Lymphozyten. Die am stärksten mit Partikeln beladenen Zellen besaßen in der Regel einen Kern von mittlerer Größe. Viele der DNS-synthetisierenden Zellen enthielten auch reichlich Partikeln, d. h. Proliferation und Phagozytose schließen sich gegenseitig nicht aus; sehr wahrscheinlich handelt es sich hierbei um differenziertere Vertreter der Makrophagenvorläufer. Die Befunde werden im Hinblick auf Probleme der Makrophagenvorläufer, des Zellaustritts aus der Blutbahn, der Transformation lymphoider Elemente und der ortständigen Proliferation der sog. mononukleären Zellen diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary Young adult female mice (Charles River strain) were given a single intra-abdominal injection of 1.12×1010 Polystyrene (Latex) particles with a mean diameter of 0.796 μ, suspended in 3 ml of 0.9% saline. Animals received a single i.v. injection of thymidine-3H one hour prior to sacrifice. Free peritoneal cells were harvested by peritoneal washings at various time intervals following injection of the particle suspension. This method gives reproducible quantitative results with regard to absolute cell numbers involved in the response to this non-antigenic stimulus. Differential counts, grading of phagocytic particle loading and autoradiographic analysis were made on smear preparations of the peritoneal exudate. The phagocytic reaction comprised granulocytes and a heterogeneous population of mononuclear elements. The latter could he separated on the basis of morphological, tinctorial and kinetic characteristics into various subgroups, i.e.: monocytoid cells with kidney-shaped nuclei comparable to blood monocytes; monocytoid cells with round nuclei; lymphomonocytoid cells; large lymphoid cells; and small lymphocytes, a fraction of which showed a slight phagocytic capacity. As judged from the changes in absolute cell counts, the neutrophilic granulocytes showed the fastest entry rate, followed by small lymphocytes, then monocytoid cells with kidneyshaped nuclei and other cell types. In the period between 16 and 24 hours following stimulation the absolute number of small lymphocytes dropped significantly while during the same time interval the counts of large lymphoid cells and monocytoid cells with kidney-shaped nuclei rose more steeply. Except for small lymphocytes, cells incorporating thymidine-3H into their DNA were found among all types of mononuclears. The only significant rise of the initial labeling index up to 20% following injection of this radioactive precursor was seen in large lymphoid cells and occurred during the first 24 hours following stimulation. An abortive, non-significant rise of the initial labeling index was observed around the second day in lymphomonocytoid cells. All other mononuclear cell types exhibited initial labeling indices comparable to control values throughout the observation period. Mean particle loading per cell (grade of phagocytosis) was heaviest in monocytoid cells with round nuclei throughout the experiment. A moderate mean phagocytic grade was found in lymphomonocytoid elements and monocytoid cells with kidney-shaped nuclei. Lower phagocytic grades were seen in neutrophilic granulocytes and large lymphoid cells. The highest percentage of the total phagocytic performance (mean phagocytic grade per cell X absolute number of cells of the same type) was observed for neutrophilic granulocytes during the first 8 to 12 hours following stimulation, later for monocytoid cells with kidney-shaped nuclei. Except for small lymphocytes all types of mononuclears were engaged to a considerable extent in phagocytosis, particularly in later stages after injection of the particles. Cells showing high grades of phagocytosis usually had medium-sized nuclei. Many DNA-synthesizing cells were heavily loaded with particles indicating that proliferation may still go on while differentiation towards phagocytic capacity has already reached a high degree. The findings are discussed in relation to problems of macrophage precursors, cell emigration from the blood stream, transformation of lymphoid elements and local proliferation of mononuclear cells.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: axillary lymphnode metastasis ; breast cancer ; 111In-pentetreotide ; receptor autoradiography ; somatostatin receptors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We conducted a prospective analysis of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 111In radiolabeled pentetreotide, a somatostatin analog, in patients with breast cancer in the aim to visualize the primary tumor and axillary or parasternal metastatic extension because some malignant breast tumors express somatostatin receptors (SS-R) in 50%, approximately. An analysis of SS-R was performed by autoradiography. Patients and methods.Thirteen patients with clinically suspected breast tumors (T1, T2), and at least one palpable axillary node (N1) were included. In vivo planar scintigrams were acquired 1, 4, and 24 h after subcutaneous, then after intravenous injections (24 h delay between injections). Improved 111In-pentetreotide uptake in invaded nodes after subcutaneous injection was hypothesized. Ex vivo scintigrams of surgical specimens were also acquired immediately after tumor resection and axillary dissection. Pathological examination and receptor autoradiography were performed on all surgical specimens. Results.Among 11 pathologically proven malignant tumors (9 ductal and 2 lobular carcinomas), only four were scintigraphically visible although six expressed SS-R receptors in vitro. Among six pathologically proven malignant nodes, four expressed SS-R, including two visualized scintigraphically. Scintigrams acquired after subcutaneous injections were less sensitive than after intravenous injections. There were no false positive. False negatives occurred in cases with small tumors with low-density or heterogeneously distributed SS-R. There was no significant difference by histological type or prognostic factors. Conclusion.Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy does not appear to be sensitive enough to evaluate axillary node extension of breast cancer or even to confirm the presence of tumoral tissue, and this whatever the administration route for 111In-pentetreotide.
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