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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Baclofen ; ischemia ; gerbils ; cerebral
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The release of the neurotransmitter, glutamate, and the activation of receptor operated calcium channels, may increase the degree of damage in ischemic brain tissue. Inhibition of excitatory neurotransmitters should therefore result in cytoprotection of ischemic brain tissue. In this study we evaluated the effect of baclofen, an inhibitor of presynaptic glutamate release, on ischemic gerbil cortex, hippocampus (CA 1 and CA4), striatum and thalamus. Histological evaluation was done in a blind manner in 4 groups (total 36 animals): a control group (9 animals) and three groups (27 animals) with varying doses of baclofen. For cerebral ischemia, we used single episode of five minutes of arterial occlusion of the carotid arteries. Baclofen in doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg were given to different groups five minutes prior to ischemic insult. This was followed by intraperitoneal injections given 24 and 48 hours after the initial insult. Statistically significant histological cytoprotection was demonstrated. Doses of 25 mg/kg appeared to demonstrate significant protection of the cortex (p=0.0002), the CA1 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus (p=0.0004 and 0.0001) respectively. At a dose of 50 mg/kg, significant cytoprotection was demonstrated at the hippocampus (CA1 and CA4 regions), in particular at the CA4 region (p=0.0029). The 100 mg/kg dose appeared to have most significant protection at the CA1 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus (both p=0.0001), striatum (p=0.0011), and the thalamus (p=0.0008). All statistical comparisons were done using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney U test). Our study demonstrates that baclofen is cytoprotective to ischemic neuronal cells, especially in the hippocampus. Clinically this may be beneficial to those patients with strokes or head injuries.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Glioblastoma multiforme ; calmodulin-dependent ; phosphodiesterase ; CaM ; Ca2+ ; protein inhibitor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Previous investigations from our laboratory have demonstrated a significant reduction in the catalytic function of the 60 kDa and 63 kDa isozymes of calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (CaMPDE) when comparing human cerebral tissue that was free of tumor and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and gliosarcoma [Lal S., Raju R.V.S., Macaulay R.B.J., and Sharma R.K. (1996) Can. J. Neurol. Sci., 23, 245–250], The results suggested the possibility of an endogenously produced inhibitor of CaMPDE expressed in these tumors. Further investigation has initially characterized the presence of a heat-labile, protein inhibitor of both the 60 kDa and 63 kDa isozymes of CaMPDE. Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column chromatography indicated that the inhibitor has an apparent molecular weight of 22 kDa and experimental evidence demonstrates that this inhibitor protein may act independently of calmodulin, and is therefore a novel CaMPDE inhibitor. Previous work on non-CNS tumors has shown high levels of CaMPDE activity and absence of an inhibitor. This suggests that a different mechanism may exist for the proliferation of these subsets of tumors.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Calmodulin ; human ; localization ; phosphodiesterase ; brain ; cAMP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The amplification of cyclic nucleotide ‘second messenger’ signals within neurons is controlled by phosphodiesterases which are responsible for their degradation. Calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase (CaMPDE) is an abundant enzyme in brain which carries out this function. For the first time, we have localized CaMPDE in the normal human brain at various ages, using a monoclonal antibody designated A6. This antibody was generated using standard techniques, purified, and applied to tissue sections. Autopsy specimens of human brain with no neuropathological abnormalities were selected representing a range of pre- and postnatal ages. Sections of various brain regions were evaluated for immunoreactivity, graded as nil, equivocal, or definite. We demonstrated definite CaMPDE immunohistochemical staining in neocortex, especially in neurons in layers 2 and 5. There was definite neuronal immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, and in the subiculum. The striatum had definite patchy neuronal staining. Definite terminal staining in the globus pallidus externa and substantia nigra pars reticulata outlined resident neurons, interpreted as axonal terminal staining. Cerebellar Purkinje cells showed definite immunoreactivity. In the developing brain, definite immunohistochemical staining was seen in the cerebellar external granular layer. The expression of CaMPDE in specific subsets of neurons suggests they may correlate with cells having dopaminergic innervation and/or high levels of neuronal integration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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