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  • 1
    Keywords: Transportation, Planning, Mathematical models.
    Pages: 345 p.
    ISBN: 0-585-47522-9
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  • 2
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Botany ; Plant breeding ; Plant physiology ; Life sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant physiology ; Plant Genetics & Genomics ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1.Auxin in plant growth and stress responses -- 2.Abscisic acid implication in plant growth and stress responses -- 3.Cytokinin regulation of plant growth and stress responses -- 4.Roles of ethylene in plant growth and responses to stresses -- 5.Gibberellin implication in plant growth and stress responses -- 6.Brassinosteroids implicated in plant growth and stress responses -- 7.Salicylic acid and defense responses in plants -- 8.Jasmonates in plant growth and stress responses -- 9.Strigolactones: biosynthesis and functions in plant growth and stress responses -- 10.Phytohormonal crosstalk under abiotic stress -- 11.Plant hormone crosstalks under biotic stresses
    Abstract: Abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and productivity. The phytohormones regulate key physiological events under normal and stressful conditions for plant development. Accumulative research efforts have discovered important roles of phytohormones and their interactions in regulation of plant adaptation to numerous stressors. Intensive molecular studies have elucidated various plant hormonal pathways; each of which consist of many signaling components that link a specific hormone perception to the regulation of downstream genes. Signal transduction pathways of auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinins, gibberellins and ethylene have been thoroughly investigated. More recently, emerging signaling pathways of brassinosteroids, jasmonates, salicylic acid and strigolactones offer an exciting gateway for understanding their multiple roles in plant physiological processes. ℗ At the molecular level, phytohormonal crosstalks can be antagonistic or synergistic or additive in actions. Additionally, the signal transduction component(s) of one hormonal pathway may interplay with the signaling component(s) of other hormonal pathway(s). Together these and other research findings have revolutionized the concept of phytohormonal studies in plants. Importantly, genetic engineering now enables plant biologists to manipulate the signaling pathways of plant hormones for development of crop varieties with improved yield and stress tolerance. ℗ This book, written by internationally recognized scholars from various countries, represents the state-of-the-art understanding of plant hormoneś€™ biology, signal transduction and implications. Aimed at a wide range of readers, including researchers, students, teachers and many others who have interests in this flourishing research field, every section is concluded with biotechnological strategies to modulate hormone contents or signal transduction pathways and crosstalk that enable us to develop crops in a sustainable manner. Given the important physiological implications of plant hormones in stressful environments, our book is finalized with chapters on phytohormonal crosstalks under abiotic and biotic stresses.℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗
    Pages: XI, 361 p. 38 illus., 28 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493904914
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  • 3
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Gene Expression ; Agriculture ; Oxidative Stress ; Plant physiology ; Life sciences ; Plant physiology ; Agriculture ; Gene Expression ; Oxidative Stress ; Springer eBooks
    Abstract: Glutathione (Îđ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH), a ubiquitously distributed sulfur containing antioxidant molecule, serves as a crucial player in regulating plant growth, development and abiotic stress tolerance. It is one of the most powerful low-molecular weight thiols and rapidly accumulates in plant and animal cells under stress. Recent in-depth studies on GSH homeostasis (synthesis, degradation, compartmentation, transport, and redox turnover) and the role of GSH in cell proliferation and abiotic stress tolerance have created opportunities for plant biologists to conduct research aimed at deciphering mechanisms associated with GSH-mediated plant growth and stress responses. GSH has also been proposed as a potential regulator of epigenetic gene regulation and so GSH might play important roles in the environmental regulation of gene expression in plants. The dynamic relationship between GSH and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been well documented and GSH has been shown to participate in numerous metabolic and cell signaling processes, including protein synthesis and amino acid transport, DNA repair, and the control of cell division and programmed cell death. Two genes,℗ glutamylcysteine℗ synthetase (GSH1) and℗ glutathione synthetase (GSH2), are involved in GSH synthesis, and genetic manipulation of these enzymes interferes with cellular levels of GSH. Any fluctuations, an increase or decrease, in cellular GSH and oxidized GSH levels has profound effects on plant growth and development, as GSH is associated with the regulation of the cell cycle, redox signaling, enzymatic activities, defense gene expression, systemic acquired resistance and xenobiotic detoxification. Being a major component of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) and glyoxalase (Gly) pathways, GSH helps to govern the level of plant oxidative stress by modulating ROS and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification in plants. Although there has been significant progress made investigating the multiple roles of GSH in abiotic stress tolerance, many aspects of GSH-mediated abiotic stress responses and stress tolerance require additional research if GSH metabolism is to be manipulated to help develop abiotic stress-tolerant and nutritionally improved crop plants. This book will provide information the roles of GSH in plants that are directly or indirectly involved in many important metabolic processes and physiological functions, including GSH synthesis, compartmentation and transport, GSH-mediated ROS and MG detoxification, as well as GSH signaling functions in modulating plant growth, development and responses to abiotic stresses. The main objective of this volume is to promote the important role of GSH in plant biology by supplying basic, comprehensive and up to date information for advanced students, scholars and scientists interested in or already engaged in research that involves GSH. Finally, this book will be a valuable resource for future GSH-related research, and can be considered as a textbook for graduate students and as a reference book for front-line researchers working on the relationships between GSH and abiotic stress responses and toleranc e
    Pages: XII, 421 p. 46 illus., 39 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319666822
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  • 4
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Biochemistry ; Cytology ; Botany ; Plant physiology ; Plant breeding ; Life sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant physiology ; Plant Breeding/Biotechnology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Cell Biology ; Earth System Sciences ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Citrus Rootstocks for Improving the Horticultural Performance and Physiological Responses under Constraining Environments -- Role of Silicon in Enrichment of Plant Nutrients and Protection from Biotic and Abiotic Stresses -- Transgenic Approaches for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals -- Using an Allometric Model for the Accumulation of Mineral Nutrients in Crops Under Saline-Water Stress: A Field Experience in Fertigation -- Control of Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Cultivated Plants by the Use of Biostimulant Microorganisms -- Cyclic Nucleotides and Nucleotide Cyclases in Plants under Stress -- Breeding and Transgenic Approaches for Development of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice -- Mineral Bioavailability Through Mutation Breeding In Pulse Crops: A Review -- Abiotic Stress and Control of Yield in Cereals -- Improvement of Crop Production under Saline Stress by a Bio-Hydraulic Approach -- Induced Mutagenesis for the Improvement of Pulse Crops with Special Reference to Mungbean-A Review Update -- Crop Improvement through Tissue Culture -- Agricultural Pollution: An Emerging Issue
    Abstract: Current trends in population growth hint that global food production is unlikely to gratify future demands under predicted climate change scenarios unless the rates of crop improvement are accelerated. Crop production faces numerous challenges, due to changing environmental conditions and evolving needs for new plant-derived materials. These challenges come at a time when the plant sciences are witnessing remarkable progress in understanding fundamental processes of plant growth and development. Drought, heat, cold and salinity are among the major abiotic stresses that often cause a series of morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular alterations which adversely affect plant growth, development and℗ productivity, consequently posing a serious challenge for sustainable food production in large parts of the world, particularly in emerging countries. This emphasizes the urgency of finding better ways to translate new advances in plant science into concrete successes in agricultural production. To overcome the pessimistic influence of abiotic stresses and to maintain the food security in the face of these challenges, new, improved and tolerant crop varieties, contemporary breeding techniques, and cavernous understanding of the mechanisms that counteract detrimental climate changes are indubitably needed to sustain the requisite food supply. In this context, Improvement of Crops in the Era of Climatic Changes, Volume 1 provides a state-of-the-art guide to recent developments that aid in the understanding of plant responses to abiotic stresses and lead to new horizons vis-© -vis prime strategies for translating current research℗ into applied solutions to create strong yields and overall crop improvement under such unfavourable environments. Written by a diverse℗ group of internationally famed scholars, Improvement of Crops in the Era of Climatic Changes, Volume 1 is a brief yet all-inclusive resource that is immensely advantageous for researchers, students, environmentalists, soil scientists, professionals, and many others in the quest of advancement in this flourishing field of research
    Pages: XVII, 397 p. 34 illus., 19 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781461488309
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  • 5
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Life sciences ; Life Sciences, general ; Springer eBooks
    ISBN: 9789086867424
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  • 6
    Keywords: Medicine ; Cancer Research ; Biomedicine ; Cancer Research ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction: Esophageal Adenocarcinoma:℗ Updates of Current Status.-℗ Radiotherapy for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Chemotherapy for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Surgical Protocol for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.-℗ Target Therapy for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.-℗ Histopathological Assessment for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Macroscopic Assessment and Cut Up of Endoscopic Resection Specimens for Early Esophageal Glandular Malignancies -- Processing of Surgical Specimen (Esophagogastrectomy) for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Application of Pathological Staging in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Application of Tissue Microarray in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Predictive Marker: HER2 in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Whole-Slide Imaging for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Animal Model: Reflux Models in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Animal Model: Xenograft Mouse Models℗ in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Identification of Cancer Stem Cells in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Circulatory Tumor Cells in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Liquid Biopsy for Investigation of Cancer DNA in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: Cell-Free Plasma DNA and Exosome-Associated DNA -- Somatic DNA Copy Number Alterations Detection℗ for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Using Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction -- Targeted Single Gene Mutation in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- DNA Genome Sequencing in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Epigenetics: DNA Methylation Analysis in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Detection and Quantification of MicroRNAs in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- RNA Interference-Mediated Gene Silencing in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma -- Proteomic Protocol in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
    Abstract: This vital collection provides a unique set of techniques to explore the clinical, pathological, and research aspects of the management of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Beginning with an introduction to the basic features of esophageal adenocarcinoma, the book continues with clinical protocols for the management of the cancer, pathological methods for management of the patients and research, as well as protocols for molecular research, which could aid researchers in furthering our understanding of pathogenesis as well as in identifying new targets for the treatment and prevention of adenocarcinoma. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions on their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.℗ Comprehensive and authoritative, Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: Methods and Protocols is a valuable guide to stimulate specialists from various disciplines in their continuing research into esophageal adenocarcinoma and translating that research into improving the management of this cancer of rising importance
    Pages: X, 296 p. 79 illus., 76 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493977345
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  • 7
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Biochemistry ; Cytology ; Botany ; Plant physiology ; Plant breeding ; Life sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant physiology ; Plant Breeding/Biotechnology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Cell Biology ; Earth System Sciences ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Brassicas: Responses and Tolerance To Heavy Metal Stress -- Recent Advances in Rapid and Sensitive Screening For Abiotic Stress Tolerance -- Transcriptomics of Heat Stress in Plants -- Biotic Stress and Crop Improvement -- Salt Stress and Sugar Beet Improvement: Challenges and Opportunities -- Genotypic Variation for Drought Tolerance in Wheat Plants -- Soil Contaminants: Sources, Effects and Approaches for Remediation -- Role of Macronutrients in Plant Growth and Acclimation: Recent Advances and Future Prospective -- Mutation Breeding: A Novel Technique for Genetic Improvement of Pulse Crops Particularly Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) -- Organic Farming: The Return To Nature -- The Role of Cytological Aberrations in Crop Improvement Through Induced Mutagenesis -- Wheat Improvement: Historical Perspective and Mutational Approach-A Review -- Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Disease Predictive Model Based on Environmental Variables -- Transcription Factors in Abiotic Stress Responses -Their Potentials in Crop Improvement
    Abstract: Abiotic stress drastically limits agricultural crop productivity worldwide. Climate change threatens the sustainable agriculture with its rapid and unpredictable effects, making it difficult for agriculturists and farmers to respond to the challenges cropping up from environmental stresses.℗ In light of population growth and climate changes, investment in agriculture is the only way to avert wide scale food shortages. This challenge comes at a time when plant sciences are witnessing remarkable progress in understanding the fundamental processes of plant growth and development. Plant researchers℗ have identified℗ genes controlling different aspects of plant growth and development, but many challenges still exist in creating an apt infrastructure,℗ access to bioinformatics, and good crop results. Improvement of Crops in the Era of Climatic Changes, Volume℗ 2℗ focuses on many existing opportunities that can be applied methodically through conventional breeding, without touching upon the latest discoveries such as the power of genomics to applied breeding in plant biology.Written by a diverse℗ faction of internationally famed℗ scholars, this volume adds new horizons in the field of crop improvement, genetic engineering and abiotic stress tolerance. Comprehensive and lavishly illustrated, Improvement of Crops in the Era of Climatic Changes, Volume℗ 2℗ is a state-of-the-art guide to recent developments℗ vis-© -vis℗ various aspects of plant responses in molecular and biochemical ways to create strong yields and overall crop improvement
    Pages: XVII, 368 p. 34 illus., 12 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781461488248
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  • 8
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Endangered ecosystems ; Microbiology ; Botany ; Plant breeding ; Life sciences ; Life Sciences, general ; Agriculture ; Ecosystems ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Breeding/Biotechnology ; Microbiology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Physiological responses of legume Nitrogen fixation to water limitation -- Salinity: physiological impacts on legume Nitrogen fixation.-℗ How does high temperature affect legume nodule symbiotic activity -- Will elevated CO2 level amplify the benefits of symbiotic Nitrogen fixation in legumes -- Nodule physiological implications associated with soil acidity
    Abstract: Global climate change is increasingly recognized as a critical challenge with which the world is facing. This big issue has been globally viewed as an alarming threat to future sustainable agricultural development. Stresses of plants, caused by various climatic variables, are the principle factors behind the remarkable reductions in legume production. Over last decade, our understanding of plant adaptation to various environmental stresses has grown considerably. The threat of global environmental variability has made development of elite new varieties that could withstand the future expected harsh climatic conditions highly important. Much progress has been achieved in the identification and characterization of the underlying mechanisms that help symbiotic legumes overcome the negative impact of various abiotic stresses. We realize the necessity for evaluating the impact of these major stresses on the legumes performance. The present volume is an attempt to reach this goal. Recent interest in understanding legume responses to climate change makes this volume timely. The “Legume Nitrogen Fixation in a Changing Environment - Achievements and Challenges” volume brings together the state-of-the-art overview of the legume-rhizobia interaction in the context of a changing global environment. This volume focuses on the major environmental factors, namely drought, elevated temperature, salinity, soil acidity and rising carbon dioxide that substantially limit legume growth and productivity. Five chapters written by five internationally recognized research groups provide comprehensive coverage of the physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms that enable legume adaptation to these abiotic stressors. We believe that the knowledge included in this endeavor will be useful in building critical strategies to counter unfavorable conditions by leguminous plants. We enjoyed working on this volume in collaboration with the contributing authors. We hope that this volume will be of great value to legume researchers, and to people working with non-leguminous crop species as well
    Pages: VII, 133 p. 21 illus., 10 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319062129
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Objective To assess the relationship between risk factor clusters and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in Asian and Caucasian populations and to estimate the burden of CVD attributable to each cluster. Setting Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Participants Individual participant data from 34 population-based cohorts, involving 314 024 participants without a history of CVD at baseline. Outcome measures Clusters were 11 possible combinations of four individual risk factors (current smoking, overweight, blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol). Cox regression models were used to obtain adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for CVD associated with individual risk factors and risk factor clusters. Population-attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Results During a mean follow-up of 7 years, 6203 CVD events were recorded. The ranking of HRs and PAFs was similar for Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) and Asia; clusters including BP consistently showed the highest HRs and PAFs. The BP–smoking cluster had the highest HR for people with two risk factors: 4.13 (3.56 to 4.80) for Asia and 3.07 (2.23 to 4.23) for ANZ. Corresponding PAFs were 24% and 11%, respectively. For individuals with three risk factors, the BP–smoking–cholesterol cluster had the highest HR (4.67 (3.92 to 5.57) for Asia and 3.49 (2.69 to 4.53) for ANZ). Corresponding PAFs were 13% and 10%. Conclusions Risk factor clusters act similarly on CVD risk in Asian and Caucasian populations. Clusters including elevated BP were associated with the highest excess risk of CVD.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology, Epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les données cliniques, endoscopiques, et biochimiques chez 701 patients ayant un ulcère gastroduodénal hémorragique ont été analysés prospectivement. Le taux global de récidive hémorragique était de 16.1%; le risque fatal était augmenté de 17 fois (1.2% vs 20.6%,p 〈 0.001). Parmi ceux qui n'ont pas survécu au traitment conservateur initial, plus de 75% avaient resaigné. La récidive hémorragique s'avérait plus probable (24.1% vs 14.2%,p 〈 0.02) lorsque le patient était en état de choc à l'admission. Le risque de récidive hémorragique était doublé chez le patient de plus de 60 ans (22.1% vs 10.9%,p 〈 0.001). Les maladies associées ont influencé l'évolution de façon significative (p 〈 0.01) selon que le patient était en état de choc ou pas. Lorsque l'endoscopie mettait en évidence des signes d'hémorragie récente, le risque de mortalité triplait (2.4% vs 7.5%,p 〈 0.002). Ces signes endoscopiques ont été plus fréquemment rencontrés lorsque la taille de l'ulcère dépassait 1 cm (61.4% vs 39.8%,p 〈 0.001). Les taux de mortalité respectifs lorsque la taille de l'ulcère étaient ≤ ou 〉 de 1 cm était de 1.6% et 12.5% (p 〈 0.001). Les taux correspondants chez les patients de plus de 60 ans étaient de 4.4% et 16.2% (p 〈 0.002). Le risque de récidive hémorragique triplait lorsque les signes d'hémorragie récente était présents. La mortalité augmentait de 6 fois lorsqu'une intervention a dû être pratiquée en urgence après échec du traitement nonopératoire (2.6% vs 14.9%,p 〈 0.001). Les risques de récidive hémorragique et de mortalité augmentent chez le patient agé de plus de 60 ans, ayant une pathologie associée, un état de choc à l'admission, un ulcère de taille importante, et des signes d'hémorrragie récente.
    Abstract: Resumen Los datos endoscópicos y de laboratorio fueron recolectados en forma prospectiva en 701 pacientes con úlcera péptica sangrante. La tasa global de resangrado fue 16.1% y ésta incrementó 17 veces (1.2% versus 20.6%,p 〈 0.001) el riesgo de desenlace fatal. Se documentó resangrado en 75% del grupo que no sobrevivió el manejo conservador inicial. El resangrado apareció más frecuente (24.1% versus 14.2%,p 〈 0.02) cuando hubo shock en el momento de la admisión y el riesgo de resangrado fue del doble en pacientes 〉60 años (22.1% versus 10.9%,p 〈 0.001). Las ulceras 〉1 cm también exhibieron un riesgo de resangrado del doble (23.9% versus 12.4%,p 〈 0.002). La presencia de enfermedad médica concomitante representó) un efecto adverso significativo sobre el desenlace final (p 〈 0.05). La presencia de shock en el momento de la admisión apareció asociada con un doblaje de las cifras de mortalidad (9.5% versus 3.7%,p 〈 0.01). La identificación de estigmas de hemorragia reciente triplicó el riesgo de mortalidad (7.5% versus 2.4%,p 〈 0.002), y los estigmas fueron hallados con mayor frecuencia cuando el tamano de la úlcera fue 〉1 cm (61.4% versus 39.8%,p 〈 0.001). Las tasas respectivas de mortalidad para úlceras 〈1 cm y 〉1 cm fueron 1.6% y 12.5% (p 〈 0.001); las tasas de mortalidad correspondientes para pacientes 〉60 años fueron 4.4% y 16.4% (p 〈 0.002). El riesgo de resangrado se triplicó (6.7% versus 2.6%,p 〈 0.02) cuando se evidenciaron estigmas de hemorragia reciente. Se observó un incremento de 6 veces en la mortalidad después de cirugía de urgencia en comparación con el manejo conservador de pacientes en quienes no fue necesario realizar una intervención quirúrgica (2.6% versus 14.9%,p 〈 0.001). En resumen, la edad 〉60, enfermedad médica concomitante, la presencia de shock en el momento de la admisión, una úlcera de gran tamano, y la evidencia de estigmas de hemorragia reciente aparecieron asociados con un mayor riesgo de sangrado y una elevada mortalidad.
    Notes: Abstract Clinical, endoscopic, and laboratory data were collected prospectively in 701 patients with bleeding peptic ulcer. The overall rebleeding rate was 16.1% and increased the risk of a fatal outcome by 17 fold (1.2% versus 20.6%,p 〈 0.001). Rebleeding was documented in more than 75% of the group who did not survive following initial conservative management. Rebleeding was more likely (24.1% versus 14.2%,p 〈 0.02) when shock was present on admission and the risk of a rebleed was doubled in patients over 60 years of age (22.1% versus 10.9%,p 〈 0.001). Ulcers greater than 1 cm in size carried twice the risk of rebleeding (23.9% versus 12.4%,p 〈 0.002). Concomitant medical illness had a significant adverse effect on outcome (p 〈 0.05). Shock on admission was associated with a doubling of mortality figures (9.5% versus 3.7%,p 〈 0.01). The identification of endoscopic stigmata of recent hemorrhage (ESRH) tripled the risk of mortality (7.5% versus 2.4%,p 〈 0.002), ESRH were more frequently encountered when ulcer size was larger than 1 cm (61.4% versus 39.8%,p 〈 0.001). Respective mortality rates for ulcers less than or equal to 1 cm and greater than 1 cm in size were 1.6% and 12.5% (p 〈 0.001), corresponding mortality figures for patients over 60 years of age being 4.4% and 16.4% (p 〈 0.002). The risk of a rebleed tripled (6.7% versus 2.6%,p 〈 0.02) when ESRH were evident. There was a 6-fold increase in mortality following emergency surgery when compared with conservative management of patients in whom no surgical intervention was necessary (2.6% versus 14.9%,p 〈 0.001). In summary, age over 60 years, previous medical illness, shock on admission, large ulcer size, and ESRH were each associated with an increased risk of rebleeding and mortality.
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