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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two independent study-groups, one in Britain and the other in the United States, were the first to report linkage between APC and a TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) at D5S71 (probe C11p11) on chromosome 5q. They found no recombinants in about 50 informative meioses. The same TaqI RFLP was found to be uninformative for linkage in 15 Dutch polyposis families. The recently reported four base-pair deletion polymorphism (DEL1) at D5S71 has raised the polymorphism information content of this marker from 0.17 to 0.40 in the Dutch population. Seven of 20 polyposis families screened for the DEL1 as well as the TaqI polymorphism gave a combined peak lod score of 5.68 with no recombinants in 37 informative meioses. These data, together with those so far reported in the literature, raise the peak lod score to 17.09 at a recombination fraction of 0.05, the 95% upper confidence limit being 0.09. In combination with the use of another informative marker, D5S81 (probe YN5.48) closely mapping on the other side of APC, the presymptomatic diagnosis of the disease can be made with more than 99.9% certainty. It has to be stressed, however, that the the possible existence of more than one polyposis locus cannot, as yet, be excluded.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Nifedipine ; omeprazole ; absorption ; gastric pH ; pharmacokinetic ; drug interaction ; adverse effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of single dose (20 mg) and short-term (20 mg/day for 8 days) oral treatment with omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics and effects of oral nifedipine (10 mg capsule) and on gastric pH have been investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study in 10 non-smoking healthy male subjects. The single dose of omeprazole had no significant effect on any pharmacokinetic parameter of nifedipine, nor on gastric pH, or blood pressure or heart rate. Short-term omeprazole treatment increased the AUC of nifedipine by 26% (95% confidence interval 9–46%), but all other pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine, including elimination half-life, Cmax, tmax, and recovery of the main urinary metabolite, were not significantly changed. The median gastric pH during the absorption phase of nifedipine was increased by short-term omeprazole (pH 4.2) compared to placebo treatment (pH 1.4). Blood pressure and heart rate did not differ between treatments. The interaction between nifedipine and omeprazole is not likely to be of major clinical relevance.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Gallbladder motility ; Somatostatin ; Loxiglumide ; intraduodenal fat stimulation ; plasma CCK
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cholecystokinin (CCK) is the major hormonal stimulus of gallbladder contraction. Both somatostatin and CCK-A receptor antagonists inhibit stimulation of the gallbladder by CCK. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of somatostatin and the CCK-A receptor antagonist loxiglumide (CR 1505) on gallbladder volume at baseline and after feeding. In random order nine healthy subjects received somatostatin (IV loading dose 125 μg, followed by IV infusion of 125 μg · h−1), loxiglumide (10 mg · kg−1 · h−1) and control saline. Gallbladder volumes and plasma CCK levels were measured basally and during stimulation by an intraduodenal infusion of fat using, respectively, ultrasound and a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay. Mean basal gallbladder volume was similar prior to the saline control (28.5 ml), loxiglumide (28.7 ml) and somatostatin (23.4 ml) experiments. In the control experiment, intraduodenal fat led to a significant increase in plasma CCK from 2.6 to 4.8 pmol · l−1, accompanied by contraction of the gallbladder to 2.0 ml. Loxiglumide induced dilatation of the gallbladder to 40 ml and prevented the any contraction in response to intraduodenal fat. During the somatostatin infusion, gallbladder volume remained the same both basally and during fat stimulation. The plasma CCK response to intraduodenal fat was exaggerated by loxiglumide and was abolished by somatostatin. We conclude that there are major differences between the effects of loxiglumide and somatostatin on gallbladder motility. Loxiglumide dilates the gallbladder, while somatostatin prevents its contraction during fat stimulation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: pirenzepine ; gastrin release ; gastric acid secretion ; atropine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have studied the effects of the selective muscarinic M1-receptor antagonist pirenzepine and the non-selective muscarinic antagonist atropine on bombesin- and peptone-stimulated gastrin release in healthy subjects. Pirenzepine (i. v. bolus 0.6 mg/kg) and atropine (i. v. bolus 15 µg/kg, followed by an infusion of 5 µg·kg−1·h−1) were given in doses equipotent in terms of reduction of gastric acid secretion. Neither affected bombesin- or peptone-stimulated gastrin release. These findings do not support the involvement of M1-receptors in the cholinergic regulation of gastrin release and suggest that the reduction in acid secretion caused by pirenzepine is not mediated by inhibition of gastrin release.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: cholecystokinin ; loxiglumide ; CCK-receptor antagonist ; bombesin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cholecystokinin (CCK)-receptor antagonists have been reported to inhibit the effects of the hormone on the gastrointestinal tract. Their effect on plasma CCK levels in man has not been described. The present study in 5 normal subjects demonstrated that i.v. infusion of the potent, specific CCK-receptor antagonist loxiglumide (CR 1505) significantly augmented plasma CCK levels during infusion of bombesin (402 pM per 30 min) and after administration of a meal (1390 pM per 300 min) when compared to the bombesin- (192 pM per 30 min) and meal- (886 pM per 300 min) stimulated CCK responses during infusion of saline. The basal plasma CCK during saline infusion (0.1 pM per 40 min) was not significantly influenced by CR 1505 (−1.8 pM per 40 min). Thus, both enteral (meal) and parenteral (bombesin) stimulation of CCK secretion are augmented by CCK-receptor blockade.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: omeprazole ; pepsinogen A ; pepsinogen C ; fasting serum gastrin ; pentagastrin ; gastric-acid ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A study has been done in 10 male healthy volunteers of the effect of oral omeprazole 20 mg daily for 3 days on the serum concentrations of Pepsinogens A and C in relation to changes in fasting serum gastrin and basal and pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid output. The concentrations of Pepsinogens A and C showed concomitant and variable but significant increases, and the Pepsinogen A, C ratio did not change during the 3-day course of omeprazole. The increments were also significantly correlated with the increase in fasting serum gastrin and with the reduction in pentagastrin stimulated acid output. The correlations were mainly due to the marked inhibition of gastric acid secretion and the corresponding increases in serum gastrin and Pepsinogens A and C in two subjects, as in the other 8 subjects the changes were only modest. There appears to be a relationship, therefore, between the degree of inhibition of acid by omeprazole and the parallel increases in both serum pepsinogens and fasting gastrin.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Gallbladder emptying, hyperglycaemia, cholecystokinin, Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, autonomic neuropathy.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing gallstones. This has been attributed, among other factors, to alterations in gallbladder motility in the presence of autonomic neuropathy. Since high blood glucose concentrations impair gastric emptying in diabetic patients, we have investigated the effect of acute hyperglycaemia on gallbladder motility. Seven Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients were studied twice during euglycaemia (blood glucose 5 mmol/l) and hyperglycaemia (blood glucose 15 mmol/l) using a clamp technique. In addition, seven healthy volunteers were studied during euglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. Gallbladder volumes, measured with ultrasonography, were studied before and during infusion of step-wise increasing doses of cholecystokinin-33, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 Ivy Dog Unit·kg−1·h−1, each dose for 30 min. Mean basal gallbladder volumes were not significantly different in the four experiments. Administration of cholecystokinin resulted in significant (p 〈0.05) dose-dependent reductions in gallbladder volume in all experiments. During euglycaemia the gallbladder contraction in diabetic patients was not significantly different from the control subjects. During hyperglycaemia the gallbladder contraction in the diabetic patients was significantly (p 〈0.05) reduced compared to euglycaemia only during infusion of 0.25 Ivy Dog Unit·kg−1·h−1 of cholecystokinin (19±6 % vs 33±6 %). Compared to euglycaemia, during hyperglycaemia the gallbladder contraction in the control subjects was significantly (p 〈0.05) reduced during infusion of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 Ivy Dog Unit·kg−1·h−1 of cholecystokinin (14±4 % vs 31±3 %; 42±6 % vs 65±5 %; 74±4 % vs 90±3 %, respectively). It is concluded that during euglycaemia the gallbladder contraction in response to cholecystokinin in Type 1 diabetic patients is not significantly different from control subjects. During hyperglycaemia the gallbladder contraction in response to 0.25 Ivy Dog Unit·kg−1·h−1 cholecystokinin, leading to cholecystokinin levels as observed after ingestion of a light meal, is significantly reduced in Type 1 diabetic patients. [Diabetologia (1994) 37: 75–81]
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Immediately after the introduction of the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole, a 2-year follow-up study was started to evaluate patterns of use, safety and effectiveness of this drug in naturally occurring groups of patients in the Netherlands. Medical data were recorded by participating physicians while medication listings were provided by pharmacists.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods:The study was designed according to the Safety Assessment of Marketed Medicines guidelines. The only inclusion criterion was the use of lansoprazole prior to entry into the study.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Results:A total of 5669 lansoprazole users was included by 374 general practitioners and 117 specialists. Lansoprazole was mostly prescribed in patients with reflux oesophagitis (55.1%), `gastritis' (26.8%) and duodenal ulcers (11.4%), sometimes as part of a Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy (8.5%). For their complaints most patients (91.1%) had previously used acid-related drugs. Improvement or disappearance of complaints was achieved in 88.9% and 90.5% of patients after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, respectively. Diarrhoea (4.1%), headache (2.9%) and nausea (2.6%) were the most frequently reported adverse events.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusion:The patterns of use of lansoprazole in daily practice deviated from the recommendations in the information leaflet. Nevertheless, lansoprazole was found to be safe in this naturally occurring group of users. Effectiveness appeared to be comparable to results found in clinical trials of the registered indications for lansoprazole.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Gallbladder emptying ; hyperglycaemia ; cholecystokinin ; Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; autonomic neuropathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing gallstones. This has been attributed, among other factors, to alterations in gallbladder motility in the presence of autonomic neuropathy. Since high blood glucose concentrations impair gastric emptying in diabetic patients, we have investigated the effect of acute hyperglycaemia on gallbladder motility. Seven Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients were studied twice during euglycaemia (blood glucose 5 mmol/l) and hyperglycaemia (blood glucose 15 mmol/l) using a clamp technique. In addition, seven healthy volunteers were studied during euglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. Gallbladder volumes, measured with ultrasonography, were studied before and during infusion of step-wise increasing doses of cholecystokinin-33, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 Ivy Dog Unit · kg−1 · h−1, each dose for 30 min. Mean basal gallbladder volumes were not significantly different in the four experiments. Administration of cholecystokinin resulted in significant (p〈0.05) dose-dependent reductions in gallbladder volume in all experiments. During euglycaemia the gallbladder contraction in diabetic patients was not significantly different from the control subjects. During hyperglycaemia the gallbladder contraction in the diabetic patients was significantly (p〈0.05) reduced compared to euglycaemia only during infusion of 0.25 Ivy Dog Unit · kg−1 · h−1 of cholecystokinin (19±6% vs 33±6%). Compared to euglycaemia, during hyperglycaemia the gallbladder contraction in the control subjects was significantly (p〈0.05) reduced during infusion of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 Ivy Dog Unit · kg−1 · h−1 of cholecystokinin (14±4% vs 31±3%; 42±6% vs 65±5%; 74±4% vs 90±3%, respectively). It is concluded that during euglycaemia the gallbladder contraction in response to cholecystokinin in Type 1 diabetic patients is not significantly different from control subjects. During hyperglycaemia the gallbladder contraction in response to 0.25 Ivy Dog Unit · kg−1 · h−1 cholecystokinin, leading to cholecystokinin levels as observed after ingestion of a light meal, is significantly reduced in Type 1 diabetic patients.
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