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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of oral rehabilitation 13 (1986), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Two clinical studies were performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an intracoronal device for the controlled release of SnF2. SnF2-polycarboxylate cement, containing approximately 72mgF−, was placed in subjects' molars requiring two-surface restorations.In the trial for safety, eight subjects had the restoration in place for 34 days. The salivary fluoride levels were elevated to a mean of 0.3/106. over the experimental period. Urinary fluoride levels were only above baseline levels during the first few days. The restoration's physical properties were adequate; however, subjects experienced gingival irritation in areas where the restoration was contacted with gingiva.In the trial for efficacy, fourteen subjects had either a SnF2-polycarboxylate or a placebo restoration placed in a molar tooth during a 2 week period of no oral hygiene. During the experimental period, the control subjects had higher levels of salivary total CFU, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans: while the subjects with the SnF2 restoration had increased S. sanguis and decreased S. mutans levels. No differences in G.I. or PL 1 scores were noted between groups.Further development of this controlled release system should include using the SnF2-polycarboxylate restoration in more than one tooth per subject to increase the fluoride reservoir, and not allowing the restoration to contact gingival tissues.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present study was to correlate the changes in the peri-implant tissues occurring after functional loading of non-submerged titanium implants and assessed by radiographic, clinical and mobility measurements. 11 patients with distal extension situations received 18 implants of the ITI® Dental Implant System. After a healing period of 3months, the suprastructures were fabricated and seated 5months post-surgically. For the assessment of peri-implant bone changes, standardized vertical bitewing radiographs with reproducible exposure geometry were evaluated using computer assisted densitometric image analyses (CADIA) and bone height measurements. Since the radiographic evaluations were performed at mesial and distal sites only, the clinical parameters from these implant aspects were included in the analysis. Clinical periodontal parameters modified for the use around implants were obtained, damping characteristics were expressed as Periotest® readings and standardized radiographs were obtained at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after loading. In addition, radiographs were also taken at the start of functional loading. The data obtained from this small sample of implants demonstrated a wide range of different tissue alterations when using radiographic. clinical and mobility assessments. The parameter of probing attachment level (PAL) in combination with radiographic parameters obtained at 1, 3 and 6 months after loading were good predictors for the peri-implant tissue status at 2 years. This was shown by means of multiple stepwise regression analyses. Mobility measurements did not reveal valuable predictive information with the statistical models applied. Assessments of probing attachment levels using periodontal probes rendered information on peri-implant tissue alterations, which were closely correlated to the radiographically measurable peri-implant bone changes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of the present clinical study was to evalutate the 5-year results of the first 12 implants inserted at the University of Berne in regenerated bone following successful ridge augmentation with the membrane technique. The patients were recalled and examined with clinical and radiographic paramenters routinely utilized in prospective studies with standard implants in non-regenerated bone. Based on clinical and radiographic findings, all 12 implants were considered successfully integrated according to strict criteria of success. The detailed analysis of clinical parameters revealed no differences to results of prospective studies on standard implants in non-regenerated bone. All implants demonstrated ankylotic stability which was confirmed by a mean Periotest value of -2.08. The radiographic analysis showed stable bone crest levels with a mean bone loss between the 1- and 5-year examination of 0.30 mm. However, 2 implants exhibited a bone loss of more than 1 mm between the 1- and 5-year examination. Therefore, the prognosis of these 2 implants seems questionable at the present time. It can be concluded that bone regenerated with the membrane technique reacts to implant placement like non-regenerated bone, since all 12 implants achieved successful tissue integration with functional ankylosis. Furthermore, this bone is also load-bearing, since all 12 implants maintained osseointegration over a 5-year period.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present study was to evaluate surface alterations on titanium implant necks subsequent to different prophylaxis procedures. Fifty ITI implants were utilized. Forty implants were treated with 10 different prophylaxis procedures (ultrasonic scaler, plastic tip ultrasonic scaler, stainless steel curette, titanium curette, teflon curette, air powered system, abrasive rubber cups, polishing rubber cup and brush), and 10 implants were left as untreated controls. Surface alterations were studied on an area of 1mm×0.9mm and quantified using optical microscopic, SEM and laser prophylometer analysis. The use of the laser prophylometer provided an objective criterion for evaluation, expressing implant neck surface alterations in numeric values in terms of two roughness indexes, Ra and Rz. The results showed that, in comparison with the controls (Ra=0.50; Rz=3.98) the procedures investigated could be divided into 3 main groups:1) Methods which altered the implant neck surface producing increased roughness (Ra=0.68–2.08; Rz=4.68–11.92);2) Methods which left the implant neck surface unaltered (Ra=0.44–0.57: Rz=0.42–3.46);3) Methods resulting in a smoothening of the implant neck surface (Ra=0.36; Rz=2.15).Group 1 included procedures that should be avoided. However, it appeared safe to apply the procedures of groups 2 and 3. To confirm these results, it will be necessary to evaluate the plaque- and calculus-removing efficacy from titanium neck implant surfaces in vivo.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The principle of guided tissue regeneration has been successfully applied for the regeneration of bone in various jaw defects in human. The purpose of this study was to assess the bone volume regenerated using nonresorbable membrane barriers. Nineteen patients with jaw bone defects of various sizes and configurations were included in the study. Combined split-thickness/full-thickness mucosal flaps were elevated in the area of missing bone. The size of the defects was assessed by measuring the distance from a reference line between 2 adjacent teeth (cementoenamel junctions) to the alveolar crest (a) every 2 or 3 mm. In addition, the crestal width was measured. Consequently, the surface of the triangle formed by a and the width of the crest as well as the volume between all triangles were calculated geometrically. Following the placement of Gore-Tex® augmentation material as a barrier, the distance (b) to the top of the membrane from the reference line was assessed, and the maximum possible volume for bone regeneration based on (a-b) and the width of the crest was calculated. At the time of membrane removal (3–8 months later). the same measurements were performed and the percentages of regenerated bone in relation to the possible volume for regeneration determined. In 6 patients in whom the membranes had to be removed early due to an increased risk for infection between 3 and 5 months, bone regeneration varied between 0 and 60%. In 13 patients in whom membranes were left for 6–8 months, regenerated bone filled 90–100% of the possible volume. It was concluded that successful bone regeneration consistently occurred with an undisturbed healing period of at least 6 months.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The installment of endosseous dental implants has become an accepted treatment procedure, and the long-term clinical results appear excellent. The composition of the soft tissue environment, however, is different from that around natural teeth. One characteristic of original junctional epithelium is its association with plasminogen activator (PA) activity. In 11 patients with a total of 30 IT1 hollow-screw titanium dental implants, 16 biopsies were taken. Histologic cryostat sections were assayed for the presence of PA in the junctional epithelium. The results demonstrated that junctional epithelium around titanium implants yields PA activity in a manner very similar to that of natural teeth. The ability to produce this enzyme activity is not related to the developmental origin of the junctional cells, but to their position and function at the base of the gingival sulcus.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An intimate contact between bone and titanium implants was first demonstrated in 1969. and since then the bone-implant interface of osseointegrated implants has been investigated extensively. However. investigations of the marginal tissues and the microflora associated with osseointegrated implants have almost exclusively been carried out over the last decade. This review covers the clinical, radiographic, histologic, and microbiologic studies of marginal tissues of osseointegrated oral implants. In general, successfully osseointegrated implants exhibit low amounts of plaque con-comitant with the absence of marginal inflammation. However, plaque accumulation may cause inflammatory reactions around the implants, sometimes giving rise to mucosal hyperplasia. Apparently, keratinized mucosa is not a requisite for the maintenance of peri-implant health if oral hygiene is adequate, but the presence of peri-implant keratinized mucosa is generally advocated. Alveolar bone loss around successful implants is minimal, but significant focal loss may occur due to plaque-induced inflammation or perhaps repeatedly extensive implant load. The progression of plaque-induced alveolar bone loss of osseointegrated implants may be different from that of teeth. It is unknown whether simultaneous marginal inflammation and excessive implant load further increase the loss of alveolar bone height. Both the light microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics of marginal tissues of implants and teeth are similar except for a lack of root cementum with inserting gingival collagen fibers of implants. Clinical inflammatory reactions are histologically characterized by an increased number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the connective tissue. The scattered subgingival microbiota associated with osseointegrated implants surrounded by healthy or slightly inflamed marginal tissues is similar to that of teeth with healthy gingiva. The microbiota associated with implants affected by marginal inflammation and bone loss is complex and consists predominantly of gram-negative anaerobic rods: this. again, is a similarity to periodontal disease.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of antimicrobial treatment of peri-implant infections associated with a periodontitis-like subgingival microbiota. Nine partially or fully edentulous patients with titanium hollow cylinder implants were selected which showed loss of bone and probing depths ≥ 5 mm on one or several implants after at least 6 months following installation. They also yielded subgingival microbial samples with ≥ 106 CFU/ml, including ≥ 20% gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, The treatment included mechanical cleaning, irrigation of all peri-implant pockets 〉 3 mm with 0.5% chlorhexidine and systemic antimicrobial therapy (1000 mg ornidazole for 10 consecutive days). After therapy, bleeding scores decreased immediately and, over a one-year observation period, remained significantly lower than before treatment. A significant gradual reduction in mean probing depths was detected over this one-year period; only one case showed no improvement of local probing depth. Microbiological parameters indicated an instantaneous quantitative and qualitative change following treatment. Subsequently, several of these parameters tended to shift back towards pre-treatment values. In the second half of the observation period, however. this tendency was reversed, and levels significantly different from baseline were eventually established. This study demonstrated that treatment aiming at reducing the subgingival bacterial mass and suppressing the anaerobic segment had a beneficial effect in patients suffering from peri-implantitis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to test whether healing of extensive transosseous defects in the calvaria can successfully be achieved using guided bone regeneration. The results demonstrated complete osseous bridging of the skull defect in the test specimen. In the control specimen, fibrous connective tissue occupied the area of the skull defect.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The purpose of the present investigation was to study the topographical distribution of plaque formation using chlorhexidine digluconate (CH) as a mouthrinse and in oral irrigators during experimental gingivitis.Forty dental students (aged 22–26) with clean teeth and healthy gingivae abolished oral hygiene oral period of 3 weeks (Löe et al. 1965). During this period the participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups, Group A rinsed daily with 30 ml of a placebo and Group B with 30 ml 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate. In Groups C and E a fractionated jet irrigator was used for the daily application of 600 ml placebo (C) or O.05% CH (E); 600 ml of 0.05% CH was also used in a monojet irrigator (Group D). At the start, after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of no oral hygiene and 1 week following reinstituted oral hygiene, plaque was assessed using the Plaque Index (Silness &. Löe 1964) and gingival health was scored according to the criteria of the Gingival Index (Löe & Silness 1963). The discoloration of the teeth was determined using a set of color photos.During the experiment all groups reached plaque levels that were significantly different from each other. The highest PII were seen in the placebo rinsing group (A) followed by placebo irrigation (C). Plaque was significantly reduced in the CH groups. However, rinsing (B) formed significantly more plaque than using the oral irrigator (D, E). Group E showed the least amount of plaque. In addition, the interproximal PII were equally low as the buccal and lingual. With CH (B, D, E), gingivitis did not develop except for some interproximals in Group B. A fractionated jet irrigator was more effective for the application of CH than rinsing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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