Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Summary Four subjects were synchronized with activity from 07 to 23 h and were given a single oral dose of 80 mg racemic propranolol at fixed times (08, 14, 20 and 02 h) at weekly intervals. ANOVA revealed significant circadian changes in the peak propranolol concentration (Cmax), with a maximum at 08 h and a minimum at 02 h after drug intake; tmax was not dependent on the circadian phase. The elimination half-life varied significantly with the time of day, being shortest at 08 h (3.3 h) and longest at 20 h (4.9 h). The stereospecificity of the propranolol pharmacokinetics was not dependent on the time of drug intake. No circadian variation was found in the maximum decrease in heart rate, but the time to peak effect was dependent on the time of drug intake; tmax was 2.3 h at 08 h and 7.0 h at 02 h. Thus, the time to peak drug concentration did not coincide with the time to peak effect on heart rate at different times of day. Circadian changes were also found in the systolic blood pressure and in the double product. The results show a significant daily variation in the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of propranolol. However, chronokinetics cannot explain the circadian changes in the effects of the drug. It is concluded that circadian variation in sympathetic tone and vascular reactivity is mainly responsible for the circadian changes in the effects of propranolol.
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