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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Barley ; Manganese efficiency ; RFLP mapping ; Marker-assisted Selection ; Plant nutrition ; 4HS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  In many cropping regions of the world, yield is limited by the availability of micronutrients, and micronutrient-efficient cultivars provide a yield advantage. Traditional methods of testing cultivars for micronutrient efficiency are time-consuming and laborious. Molecular markers linked to loci controlling micronutrient efficiency will allow more rapid and efficient selection and introgression of these traits than is currently possible. Using a pot-based bioassay and bulked segregant analysis of an F2 population, we have identified several RFLPs (grouped distally on chromosome 4HS) linked to a locus for manganese efficiency in barley. This manganese efficiency locus has been designated Mel1. Pot bioassay analysis of intercrosses suggests that three useful sources of manganese efficiency are likely to be allelic at the Mel1 locus. Field evaluation of marker selected F4 progeny supports the major role of Mel1 in the genetic control of manganese efficiency. Adoption of marker assisted selection for this trait in the Southern Australian barley breeding program has occurred. This has been facilitated by the demonstration that the Mel1 allele of Amagi Nijo can be distinguished from 95 other locally useful varieties and breeder’s lines on the basis of RFLPs identified by just two molecular markers.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Wheat-rye recombinants ; Homoeologous recombination ; Repetitive DNA sequences ; RFLP markers ; mapping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The introgression of genetic material from alien species is assuming increased importance in wheat breeding programs. One example is the translocation of the short arm of rye chromosome 1 (1RS) onto homoeologous wheat chromosomes, which confers disease resistance and increased yield on wheat. However, this translocation is also associated with dough quality defects. To break the linkage between the desirable agronomic traits and poor dough quality, recombination has been induced between 1RS and the homoeologous wheat arm IDS. Seven new recombinants were isolated, with five being similar to those reported earlier and two havina new type of structure. All available recombinantsw ere characterized with DNA probes for the loci Nor-R1, 5SDna-R1, and Tel-R1. Also, the amount of rye chromatin present was quantified with a dispersed rye-specific repetitive DNA sequence in quantitative dot blots. Furthermore, the wheat-rye recombinants were used as a mapping tool to assign two RFLP markers to specific regions on chromosome arms 1DS and 1RS of wheat and rye, respectively.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words  Barley DNA ; (1→3)-β-Glucanase ; Linkage map ; Pathogenesis-related proteins ; Gene family
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract   Members of the (1→3)-β-glucan glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.39) gene family have been mapped on the barley genome using three doubled haploid populations and seven wheat-barley addition lines. Specific probes or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were generated for the seven barley (1→3)-β-glucanase genes for which cDNA or genomic clones are currently available. The seven genes are all located on the long arm of chromosome 3 (3HL), and genes encoding isoenzymes GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV and GVII (ABG2) are clustered in a region less than 20 cM in length. The region is flanked by the RFLP marker MWG2099 on the proximal side and the Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV) resistance gene ym4 at the distal end. The gene encoding isoenzyme GVI lies approximately 50 cM outside this cluster, towards the centromere. With the exception of the gene encoding isoenzyme GIV, all of the (1→3)-β-glucanase genes are represented by single copies on the barley genome. The probe for the isoenzyme GIV gene hybridized with four DNA bands during Southern blot analysis, only one of which could be incorporated into the consensus linkage map.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key wordsCCN ; RFLP ; Hordeum vulgare ; Heterodera avenae ; Genetic mapping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae Woll., is an economically damaging pest of barley in many of the world’s cereal-growing areas. The development of CCN-resistant cultivars may be accelerated through the use of molecular markers. A number of resistance genes against the pest are well known; one of them, the single dominant Ha 2 resistance gene, has been shown to be effective against the Australian pathotype and maps to chromosome 2 of barley. Segregation analysis identified two restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers flanking the resistance gene in two doubled-haploid populations of barley. AWBMA 21 and MWG 694 mapped 4.1 and 6.1 cM respectively from the Ha 2 locus in the Chebec×Harrington cross and 4.0 and 9.2 cM respectively in the Clipper×Sahara cross. Analysis of a further seven sources of CCN resistance in the form of near-isogenic lines (NILs) indicates that all available sources of resistance to the Australian pathotype of CCN in barley represent the Ha 2 locus.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Wheat ; Flour colour ; QTL mapping ; RFLP ; AFLP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  An RFLP map constructed using 150 single seed descent (SSD) lines from a cross between two hexaploid wheat varieties (‘Schomburgk’בYarralinka’) was used to identify loci controlling flour colour. Flour colour data were obtained from field trials conducted over two seasons at different sites. The estimated heritability of this trait was calculated as 0.67. Two regions identified in the preliminary analysis on chromosomes 3A and 7A, accounted for 13% and 60% of the genetic variation respectively. A detailed analysis of the major locus on 7A was conducted through fine mapping of AFLP markers identified using bulked segregant analysis (BSA). Seven additional markers were identified by the BSA and mapped to the region of the 7A locus. The applicability of these markers to identify wheat lines with enhanced flour colour is discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Hordeum vulgare ; Disease resistance ; Genetic mapping ; RFLP ; QTL
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Spot form of net blotch (SFNB) (Pyrenophora teres f maculata) is an economically damaging foliar disease of barley in many of the world’s cereal growing areas. The development of SFNB-resistant cultivars may be accelerated through the use of molecular markers. A screen for SFNB resistance in 96 lines identified four new sources of resistance, including a feed variety, ‘Galleon’, for which a fully mapped doubled haploid population was available. Segregation data indicated SFNB resistance was conferred by a single gene in the ‘Galleon’בHaruna Nijo’ cross, positioned on the long arm of chromosome 7H. This gene is designated Rpt4 and is flanked by the RFLP loci Xpsr117(D) and Xcdo673 at distances of 6.9 cM and 25.9 cM, respectively. The marker Xpsr117(D) was validated using another population segregating for Rpt4, correctly predicting SFNB resistance with more than 90% accuracy.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Alien introgression ; Wheat-rye recombinants ; Homoeologous recombination ; RFLP markers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The introgression of genetic material from alien species into wheat has become an important tool in modern wheat breeding. Ideally, only the trait of interest and no flanking material should be transferred. Random recombination between the genetic material is therefore of paramount importance. In a model system, we examined 17 recombinants putatively between chromosome 1D of wheat and 1R of rye with 60 random RFLP and three PCR markers. The recombinants had been generated by removing the normal effect of the Ph1 gene in the wheat background. Amongst the nine short-arm recombinants, three breakpoints were identified but no differentiation could be made between the five proximal recombinants. For the eight long-arm recombinants analysed only two breakpoints were identified with 36 markers. However, only a single RFLP marker was able to differentiate between the recombinants. Indeed the long-arm results are consistent with the possibility that only the rye telomeric region had been transferred. These results indicate either a strong clustering of the RFLP markers near the centromere or else imply that recombination induced between wheat and rye in the absence of the normal effect of the Ph1 gene occurs at only restricted sites. The results allow new primary recombinants to be selected for intercrossing to generate secondary recombinants which are expected to have a smaller interstitial rye segment than that present in DR-A1.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: RFLP ; Sr22 ; Triticum aestivum ; T. boeoticum ; Recombination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Analysis of the bread wheat variety Schomburgk, and related lines in its pedigree, identified RFLP markers associated with the segment of chromosome 7A carrying the Sr22 gene derived from the diploid species T. boeoticum. The distribution of the RFLP markers indicated that at least 50% of 7AS and 80% of 7AL in Schomburgk is of T. boeoticum origin. Evaluation of five sets of nearisogenic lines, backcross lines in 20 different genetic backgrounds and an F2 population segregating for Sr22 demonstrated a very low level of recombination between the 7A chromosomes of T. boeoticum and T. aestivum. Several recombinants carrying Sr22 but with a much reduced segment of T. boeoticum were identified and these may prove useful in the breeding of further varieties with Sr22.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Restriction fragment length polymorphism ; CCN ; Genetic mapping ; Triticum aestivum ; Heterodera avenae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cereal cyst nematode (CCN) (Heterodera avenae Woll.) is an economically damaging pest of wheat in many of the worlds cereal growing areas. The development of CCN-resistant cultivars may be accelerated by the use of molecular markers. The Cre gene of the wheat line “AUS 10894” confers resistance to CCN. Using a pair of near-isogenic lines (NILs) that should differ only in a small chromosome segment containing the Cre locus, we screened 58 group-2 probes and found two (Tag605 and CDO588) that detect polymorphism between the NILs. Nulli-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines confirmed that the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers identified were derived from the long arm of wheat chromosome 2. Crosses between “AUS 10894” and “Spear” and the NIL “AP” and its recurrent parent “Prins” were used to produce F2 populations that gave the expected 3∶1 segregation ratio for the resistance gene. Linkage analysis identified two RFLP markers flanking the resistance gene. Xglk605 and Xcdo588 mapped 7.3 cM (LOD=6.0) and 8.4 cM (LOD=6.7), respectively, from the Cre locus.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley DNA ; (1→3)-β-Glucanase ; Linkage map ; Pathogenesis-related proteins ; Gene family
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Members of the (1→3)-β-glucan glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.39) gene family have been mapped on the barley genome using three doubled haploid populations and seven wheat-barley addition lines. Specific probes or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were generated for the seven barley (1→3)-β-glucanase genes for which cDNA or genomic clones are currently available. The seven genes are all located on the long arm of chromosome 3 (3HL), and genes encoding isoenzymes GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV and GVII (ABG2) are clustered in a region less than 20 cM in length. The region is flanked by the RFLP marker MWG2099 on the proximal side and the Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV) resistance gene ym4 at the distal end. The gene encoding isoenzyme GVI lies approximately 50 cM outside this cluster, towards the centromere. With the exception of the gene encoding isoenzyme GIV, all of the (1→3)-β-glucanase genes are represented by single copies on the barley genome. The probe for the isoenzyme GIV gene hybridized with four DNA bands during Southern blot analysis, only one of which could be incorporated into the consensus linkage map.
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