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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fluorescein (F) and fluorescein glucuronide (FG) were determined in the vitreous of four diabetic patients by a double-filter slit-lamp fluorophtometric technique. Determinations were performed 60–80 min after i.v. injection of fluorescein. F and FG were also determined in plasma ultrafiltrate 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after injection by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The concentration of FG in the vitreous was 3 times that of F. After correction for plasma concentrations of FG higher than those of F, the penetration index of FG through the blood-retinal barrier was found to be twice the penetration index of F. This is not what would be expected if passive transport alone were involved. Accordingly, it is suggested that active transport mechanisms contribute to the movement of F and FG across the blood-retinal barrier.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Inventiones mathematicae 102 (1990), S. 377-398 
    ISSN: 1432-1297
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1297
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Fluoride ; Plasma calcium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Sodium fluoride 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg body weight was given intraperitoneally to rats (6–11 days old and 90–95 days old). Blood analyses showed an initial increase in plasma fluoride concentration. The subsequent decrease in fluoride was paralleled by a decrease in total plasma calcium. These plasma concentrations were normal at blood collection 4 days after fluoride injection. The baby rats differed from the older rats in that their initial plasma calcium was higher and that the drop in plasma calcium concentration was less pronounced than in the old rats. A diet low in calcium and phosphate enhanced the effects of fluoride on total plasma calcium. The data indicate that the effect of large doses of fluoride on lowering the plasma calcium level is modified by the calcium intake.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Fluoride metabolism ; Calcium metabolism ; Mineralization ; Dentin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Seven days before a fluoride injection of 20 mg sodium fluoride per kg body weight, 3-month-old rats grown on a standard pellet diet containing 0.8% calcium and 1.4% phosphate were given a diet of rice with only 0.025% calcium and 0.1% phosphate. Microradiographs of the continuously growing incisors showed a hypermineralized and a subsequent hypomineralized zone. Blood analysis demonstrated a decrease and a subsequent reestablishment of plasma calcium concentration. In some experiments calcium and phosphate were administered to compensate the hypocalcemia which prevented the hypomineralized zone from arising. A delay of calcium and phosphate administration led to formation of a mineralized band within the hypomineralized zone. The results are discussed with reference to calcium homeostasis.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Fluoride ; Calcium ; Phosphate ; Parathyroid hormone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Fluoride 27 mg was given perorally to 14 subjects. It was found that the serum fluoride concentration increased followed by a decrease to normal levels during 24 h. Serum concentrations of calcium and phosphate decreased initially whereas those of serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone increased. After 24 h the measured quantities were within normal limits. The results are discussed with reference to mineralization of hard tissues and to fluoride treatment of osteoporotic patients.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Fluoride ; Plasma calcium ; Solubility of bone mineral ; Mineralization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary In a liquid (22°C) saturated with and in contact with powdered bone apatite, the fluoride ion activity was adjusted to 1–10 parts/106. Due to the fluorapatite (FAP) supersaturation produced hereby, a rapid formation of this salt occurred leading to a decrease of the concentration of the ions involved. When no more fluoride was available in the liquid, the concentrations of calcium and phosphate increased again, due to dissolution of presumeably hydroxyapatite (HAP). Fifty four rats were given either 10, 20, or 40 mg NaF per kg body weight intraperitoneally. The animals were sacrificed from 5 min to 96 h after the injection. The fluoride concentration in plasma increased to a peak, after which it decreased. Plasma calcium decreased and remained low until the fluoride had attained normal levels. The intensity of mineralization of the growing dental hard tissue was monitored on microradiographs. Corresponding to the plasma fluoride peak and the decrease of plasma calcium, a hypermineralized layer was formed while a hypomineralized zone was formed during plasma calcium increase after disappearance of fluoride. Similarities and dissimilarities between thein vitro and thein vivo experiments are discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Cerebral ischaemia ; GABA release ; brain slice ; GAT-1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relationships among ischaemic GABA efflux from brain tissue and extracellular and intracellular concentrations of sodium, chloride and potassium ions were investigated by means of 1) transverse hippocampal slices from rat and 2) functional expression of a high affinity GABA transporter inXenopus oocytes. Brain slices were incubated for 20 min in medium where extracellular sodium and chloride were substituted with impermeant ions. Isethionate (Iseth) substitution for chloride generated a 7-fold increase in GABA efflux. Choline (Chol) but not N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) substitution for sodium likewise increased GABA efflux. Reducing the osmolarity of the medium by decreasing both sodium and chloride concentrations (Hyp) increased GABA efflux 3-fold. This release was blocked by mannitol (Man). Blocking sodium channels with 1 μM of tetrodotoxin (TTX) also increased the release 3-fold. Energy deprivation (ED) increased the GABA release 50-fold. ED/Iseth left the release unchanged, ED/Chol increased the GABA efflux by 23%, whereas ED/NMDG reduced the release by 41%. Adding mannitol did not block the ED-evoked release, whereas TTX reduced it by 52%. Release of preloaded [3H]-GABA from oocytes expressing the GAT-1 GABA transporter was then examined. Depolarisation by current injection or 100 mM extracellular K+ did not increase GABA release. Sodium chloride injection, however, caused membrane depolarisation and a 100-fold increased GABA efflux from the oocytes. This release was blocked when the osmolarity was increased extracellularly by adding mannitol. These results show that 1) TTX releases GABA from brain tissue but blocks release during ED, 2) the high affinity GABA carrier must be altered in order to reverse, 3) ischaemic GABA release is sodium independent, and is modulated by large cations, 4) mannitoi blocks the reversal of high affinity carriers in oocytes, but the release from brain slices during ED is unaffected. Taken together, the results suggest that ischaemic release of GABA from brain tissue does not occur by means of reversed high affinity carriers alone, but rather that it is controlled by more complex mechanisms.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematische Annalen 302 (1995), S. 561-579 
    ISSN: 1432-1807
    Keywords: 14K15 ; 11G10 ; 14F20 ; 14K10
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 is a highly conserved molecule, which binds both active and latent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. TIMP-2 is also involved in the activation of MMP-2 on the cell surface. A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established and optimized for measurement of TIMP-2 in plasma. The capturing antibody in the ELISA was a monoclonal, while the detecting antibody was a chicken polyclonal antibody recognizing the native form of human TIMP-2. The levels of TIMP-2 were measured in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citrate plasma from healthy donors. The median values were determined as 163 ng/ml (n = 186) with a range of 109–253 ng/ml for EDTA plasma and 139 ng/ml (n = 77) with a range of 95–223 ng/ml for citrate plasma. The TIMP-2 concentration in citrate plasma from 15 patients with advanced, stage IV breast cancer had a median value of 160 ng/ml, only slightly higher but statistically distinguishable from the level found in citrate plasma from the healthy donors. In addition, the TIMP-2 concentration in EDTA plasma from colorectal cancer patients revealed a significantly higher level in plasma from patients with Dukes stage A (P = 0.01) compared with patients with more advanced Dukes stages.
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