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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Bile duct injury — Cholangiography — Common bile duct calculi — Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: The routine use of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains controversial. Methods: A retrospective review of 950 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed during an 8-year period was performed. For the first 2 years, IOC was performed selectively, and thereafter routinely. Results: Attempted in 896 patients, IOC was successful in 734 (82%). Bile duct stones were found in 77 patients (10%), dilated ducts without stones in 47 patients (6%), and anatomic variations in 4 patients (0.5%). There were four (0.4%) minor intraoperative complications related to the IOC, with no consequences for the patients. There were three (0.3%) minor injuries of the bile duct, which were identified with IOC and repaired at the time of cholecystectomy without any consequences for the patients. In two of these patients, the structure recognized and catheterized as the cystic duct was revealed by IOC to be the bile duct. Thus IOC prevented extension to a major common bile duct (CBD) injury. Conclusions: Findings show that IOC is a safe technique. Its routine use during laparoscopic cholecystectomy may not prevent bile duct injuries, but it minimizes the extent of the injury so that it can be repaired easily without any consequences for the patient. The prevention of a major bile duct injury makes IOC cost effective.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy — Pancreas — Spleen — Islet cell tumors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy combined with spleen salvage by preservation of the splenic vessels has been described in selected patients with islet cell tumors. Methods: Laparoscopic resection of the left side of the pancreas with spleen preservation on the vasa brevia was attempted in six consecutive patients. Results: Four distal pancreatectomies with spleen preservation were completed laparoscopically. There were two conversions to laparotomy. The median operating time was 300 min (range, 240–360). There was no mortality, but two patients developed a pancreatic fistula. The median postoperative hospital stay was 34.5 days (range, 5–60). All the patients remain well at a median follow-up of 30 months (range, 22–41). Conclusions: Minimally invasive surgery for distal pancreatic tumors is feasible and appropriate for most benign tumors. The spleen can be safely preserved laparoscopically on its blood supply from the short gastric vessels. The operative technique and especially the closure of the pancreatic stump need further study.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Severe pancreatitis — Debridement — Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Pacreatic debridement is a lifesaving operation in patients with severe acute pancreatitis and pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis. Even in the presence of gallstones, cholecystectomy may be avoided during the procedure, but definitive treatment of the stones is needed at a later stage. Methods: Five patients (median age 58 years) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, at a median time interval of 15 months, after pancreatic debridement via a dome-shaped upper abdominal incision for severe acute pancreatitis. The use of alternative methods for primary access, additional cannulae to enable division of adhesions, the harmonic scalpel, and the fundus first technique made the laparoscopic approach possible and safe. Results: The median operating time was 130 min. Four patients were discharged home the first or second postoperative day. One patient required a ``mini-laparotomy'' for drainage of a periumbilical hematoma and was discharged on the 13th day. Conclusions: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be considered an effective and safe approach for the treatment of gallstones in patients who have undergone pancreatic debridement.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Cholangiography — Choledocholithiasis — Cost analysis — ERCP — Gallbladder — Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: The detection of small and often asymptomatic gallbladder calculi within the bile duct at intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) frequently poses a management dilemma. Therefore, we set out to compare the outcomes and costs of two management strategies for small stones that remain in the bile duct after LC—routine postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) vs observation alone with ``on-demand'' ERCP. Methods: We studied 70 patients with bile duct stones among 922 consecutive patients who underwent LC between 1990 and 1997. Data were collected prospectively. Bile duct calculi were detected in 70 of 705 patients (9.9%) with successful IOC. Of these, 44 patients had large calculi (≥5 mm in diameter) and were subjected to a laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. The remaining 26 patients had small calculi (〈5 mm in diameter); four of them had undergone preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy and duct clearance and were therefore excluded from analysis. Patients with small duct calculi were assigned, according to individual surgeon policy, to either routine postoperative ERCP (group A, n= 8) or observation (group B, n= 14). ERCP was reserved for those who become symptomatic. The two groups were comparable for age and sex distribution. Results: No complications developed during the follow-up period in patients assigned to observation, although four became symptomatic and underwent ERCP. In group A, ERCP demonstrated a clear biliary tree in four patients and bile duct calculi in three patients; it failed in one patient. In group B, ERCP demonstrated a clear bile duct in one patient and bile duct calculi in two patients; it also failed in one patient. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and duct clearance were achieved in all patients with demonstrable bile duct calculi at ERCP. There was no morbidity or mortality associated with ERCP. The overall hospital stay was significantly longer in group A than in group B (median 5 vs 1.5 days; p= 0.011); however, the number of outpatient clinic visits was significantly greater in group b (median 3 vs 5.5, p= 0.011). The mean hospital costs, including the costs of hospital stay, readmissions, ERCP, and follow-up, were significantly greater in group A than in group B (mean £2669 vs £1508, p= 0.008). Conclusion: A ``wait and see'' policy of observation alone for patients with small bile duct calculi detected at IOC during LC appears to be safe, and it is more cost-effective than routine postoperative ERCP. ERCP should be reserved for post-LC patients who become symptomatic.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Cholelithiasis — Laparoscopic cholecystectomy — Micropuncture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) significantly reduces the discomfort and disability typically associated with open cholecystectomy, but there is still room for improvement. Methods: In order to further reduce the trauma of access, we have introduced a technique of micropuncture laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MPLC) that utilizes three 3-mm cannulae in addition to the standard 10-mm cannula at the umbilicus. MPLC was performed in 25 patients (median age, 52 years; m/f, three of 22) with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Results: The operation was completed in all patients. The median duration of surgery was 75 min (range, 45–180). Sixteen patients were discharged the same day and nine patients the next day. All the patients had an uncomplicated recovery. Only eight patients requested postoperative analgesia while in hospital. Micropuncture exploration of the bile duct was carried out in one patient. Conclusions: MPLC is a feasible and safe technique that appears to improve on the benefits of LC; it makes the operation even more feasible as a day-surgery procedure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy — Low pressure — Gasless — Subcutaneous lifting — Postoperative pain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using low-pressure pneumoperitoneum (8 mmHg) minimizes adverse hemodynamic effects, reduces postoperative pain, and accelerates recovery. Similar claims are made for gasless laparoscopy using abdominal wall lifting. The aim of this study was to compare gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy to low-pressure cholecystectomy with respect to postoperative pain and recovery. Methods: Thirty-six patients were randomized to low-pressure or gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using a subcutaneous lifting system (Laparotenser). Results: The characteristics of the patients were similar in the two groups. The procedure was completed in all patients in the low-pressure group, but two patients in the gasless group were converted to pneumoperitoneum. There were no significant differences in postoperative pain and analgesic consumption, but patients in the gasless group developed shoulder pain more frequently (50% vs 11%, p 〈 0.05). Gasless operation took longer to perform (95 vs 72.5 min, p= 0.01). Conclusions: Gasless and low-pressure laparoscopic cholecystectomy were similar with respect to postoperative pain and recovery. The gasless technique provided inferior exposure and the operation took longer, but the technique may still have value in high-risk patients with cardiorespiratory disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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