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  • 1
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    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
    Associated volumes
    Call number: E041:2
    Keywords: Differential equations / Numerical solutions ; MATLAB
    Pages: viii, 263 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 9780521530941
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Cytokines ; chemokines ; trauma ; inflammation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A traumatic injury to the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), such as a stab wound lesion, results in reactive astrogliosis and the migration of hematogenous cells into the damaged neural tissue. The roles of cytokines and growth factors released locally by the damaged endogenous cells are recognized in controlling the cellular changes that occur following CNS injury. However, the role of chemokines, a novel class of chemoattractant cytokines, is only recently being studied in regulating inflammatory cell invasion in the injured/diseased CNS (1). The mRNAs for several chemokines have been shown to be upregulated in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS, but chemokine expression in traumatic brain injury has not been studied in detail. Astrocytes have been demonstrated to participate in numerous processes that occur following injury to the CNS. In particular, astrocytic expression of cytokines and growth factors in the injured CNS has been well reviewed (2). Recently a few studies have detected the presence of chemokines in astrocytes following traumatic brain injury (3,4). These studies have suggested that chemokines may represent a promising target for future therapy of inflammatory conditions. This review summarizes the events that occur in traumatic brain injury and discusses the roles of resident and non-resident cells in the expression of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines in the injured CNS.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: GFAP ; CNS intermediate filaments ; astrogliosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It is now well established that the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the principal 8–9 nm intermediate filament in mature astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS). Over a decade ago, the value of GFAP as a prototype antigen in nervous tissue identification and as a standard marker for fundamental and applied research at an interdisciplinary level was recognized (Raine, 135). As a member of the cytoskeletal protein family, GFAP is thought to be important in modulating astrocyte motility and shape by providing structural stability to astrocytic processes. In the CNS of higher vertebrates, following injury, either as a result of trauma, disease, genetic disorders, or chemical insult, astrocytes become reactive and respond in a typical manner, termed astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is characterized by rapid synthesis of GFAP and is demonstrated by increase in protein content or by immunostaining with GFAP antibody. In addition to the major application of GFAP antisera for routine use in astrocyte identification in the CNS, the molecular cloning of the mouse gene in 1985 has opened a new and rich realm for GFAP studies. These include antisense, null mice, and numerous promoter studies. Studies showing that mice lacking GFAP are hypersensitive to cervical spinal cord injury caused by sudden acceleration of the head have provided more direct evidence for a structural role of GFAP. While the structural function of GFAP has become more acceptable, the use of GFAP antibodies and promoters continue to be valuable in studying CNS injury, disease, and development.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein has been synthesized in an RNA-dependent cell-free system derived from rabbit reticulocytes. The cell-free synthesized product appears to have the same size as GFA protein isolated from bovine spinal cord, thus showing that GFA protein does not undergo detectable proteolytic processing.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Manic patients were studied systematically over a period of months. Fluctuations in their blood plasma osmolality were observed and these correlated significantly and inversely with undulations in their mania, rating scores. Successful treatment of patients with lithium carbonate was correlated with increasing levels of their plasma osmolality and with a significant remission of mania symptomatology. Animal studies have shown that adaptations to altered blood plasma osmolalities are accompanied by profound metabolic changes in tissues of the central nervous system. A similar relationship is likely to exist in man. We suggest, therefore, that an altered plasma osmolality is linked to changes in manic symptomatology, through osmotically regulated metabolic changes in the central nervous system.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The distribution of myelin basic protein (MBP) was determined by application of the unlabeled peroxidase-anti-peroxidase method to sections of paraffin embedded optic nerve taken from the developing albino rat. MBP was not detected in optic nerves from animals younger than 90 hours postnatum. MBP staining presented first as faint, diffuse deposits of chromagen which were found in approximately one-third of the 90 hour subjects. The number of MBP positive regions and the intensity of staining of these regions increased rapidly with age. There was no obvious radial gradient in the distribution of MBP in cross sections of developing optic nerves, nor were smooth central/peripheral gradients apparent in longitudinal sections.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract General aspects of metabolic features of the most prominent CNS intermediate filament proteins, the 200,000 (200K), 150,000 (150K), and 70,000 (70K) dalton proteins of the neuron, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have been explored using the incubated spinal cord slice from the rat. Measurement of shortterm uptake of3H-labeled amino acids into the individual proteins separated on polyacrylamide gels revealed that of the three neurofilament proteins, 200K was most metabolically active, 150K was less active, and 70K contained very little incorporated radioactivity. Glial fibrillary acidic protein based on Coomassie blue stain affinity showed less metabolic activity than any of the neurofilament proteins. Those relationships were constant at all ages, but the metabolic activity of all CNS intermediate filaments decreased with age. When Ca2+ was present in the medium of the incubated slices, the intermediate filaments were rapidly destroyed, but GFAP was more resistant to degradation than the neurofilament proteins. GFAP and probably the neurofilament proteins also were relatively resistant to Ca2+-activated degradative mechanisms in spinal cords of rats at younger ages (15 day) than in those of older animals (10–18 months). It is likely that the Ca2+ activated protease is less active in developing animals in which the nerve tracts are still elongating, than in adults. These results suggest that GFAP is less active metabolically and more resistant to degradation than the neurofilament proteins at all stages of maturation, but that metabolic activity of all CNS intermediate filaments decreases with age while the susceptibility to degradation increases.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7373
    Keywords: glioblastoma multiforme ; spinal instability ; spinal cord compression ; spinal neoplasms ; neoplasms-metastasis ; combined modality therapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A case is reported of a patient rendered quadraparetic following collapse of a cervical vertebra due to neoplastic invasion by metastatic glioblastoma multiforme. The case is discussed in light of a review of the world literature regarding the clinical incidence and significance of metastasis of glial tumors. It is recommended that all patients with high grade glial tumors who complain of back pain be evaluated with plain radiographs and MRI of the spine or99Tc bone scan. The management of pathologic spine fractures from metastatic glial tumors with accompanying spinal instability or spinal cord compression due to intracanalicular bone should aim for immediate surgical decompression and stabilization followed by involved field irradiation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-742X
    Keywords: ulfated hyaluronic acid derivatives ; platelet aggregation ; platelet activation ; heparin-like
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A number of sulfated hyaluronic acid derivatives (HyalS2.5, HyalS3, and HyalS4) were prepared by sulfation of the -OH groups present on hyaluronic acid and were generically termed HyalSx. The anticoagulant properties of this series of compounds has previously been shown to be good in terms of their whole blood clotting inhibition and factor Xa and thrombin inactivation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the use of these compounds would be beneficial to patients who would normally be given heparin, and to perform some preliminary investigations into their effects on platelets. The three compounds were thus studied by investigating their ability to inhibit von Willebrand factor–dependent platelet agglutination in comparison with unfractionated heparin. Agglutination was determined turbidometrically after the addition of ristocetin to stirred formaldehyde-fixed platelets and was demonstrated to be dependent on the presence of sulfate groups on the polysaccharide chain and correlated with the degree of HyalSx sulfation. Interactions possibly important in low shear environments were investigated by measuring the pharmacological action of the HyalSx on spontaneous platelet activation and aggregate formation by flow cytometry. The data indicate that platelet activation is not correlated with the number of sulfate or hydroxyl groups on HyalSx, suggesting that activation occurs not via electrostatic interactions or H bonding, but via some other mechanism. A differentiation between low and high glycosaminoglycan sulfation densities is observed with respect to platelet aggregation, which is correlated with the number of sulfated groups per disaccharide unit. The ability of HyalSx to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin was measured by aggregometry. HyalS4 resisted thrombin stimulation to a similar extent as heparin. All Hyal derivatives, however, were better at inhibiting ADP-induced aggregation than was heparin. We conclude, therefore, that clinical use of HyalSx in place of heparin may be beneficial because ristocetin-dependent agglutination, and therefore resistance to platelet aggregation in high shear environments, in addition to resistance to stimulation by ADP, has been shown to be superior to heparin. Spontaneous platelet activation and aggregation are induced at an overall low level, even at high HyalSx concentrations, and are comparable with that of heparin.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Hypothalamus (rat) ; Differentiation ; Transplant ; Histofluorescence ; Immunocytochemistry ; Autoradiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Hypothalamic tissue from 16 to 18-day fetal rats was transplanted onto the choroidal pia overlying the superior colliculus in adult female rats. After survival periods of 2 weeks to 19 months, brains containing transplants were processed for monoamine fluorescence histochemistry, immunohistochemistry for three neuropeptides (LHRH, somatostatin, neurophysin), or for autoradiography in ovariectomized hosts that received [3H] estradiol. Most of the transplants survived and retained or increased in size; 14 of 25 transplants examined by fluorescence histochemistry were found to contain median eminence-like structures. In almost all of the transplants that were stained for neuropeptides, beaded processes and occasional cell bodies were observed. Although immunoreactive fibers were found near blood vessels, no palisade arrangement typical of the normal median eminence was evident. Each of the hypothalamic transplants on which steroid autoradiography was performed contained clusters of estrophilic neurons, the intensity of labeling of which was comparable to that seen in the host hypothalamus. These results indicate that many characteristic morphological and chemical features of the hypothalamus, which are not evident in the 16 to 18-day fetus, are elaborated in transplants during the survival period in the host. Transplantation of fetal hypothalamus to adult choroidal pia thus appears to be a valuable approach for studying the factors, humoral or neural, that regulate the differentiation of this brain region.
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