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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELL ; LUNG ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; validation ; DNA ; BIOMARKERS ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS ; HEALTH ; NUMBER ; REPAIR ; smoking ; p53 ; cancer risk ; FRANCE ; genotyping ; DNA repair ; TP53 ; ONCOLOGY ; VARIANT ; METAANALYSIS ; XRCC1 ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; biomarker ; analysis ; methods ; DNA repair genes ; pooled analysis ; USA ; cancer research ; CANCER-RISK ; OGG1 ; NOV ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; XRCC3 ; discussion ; POOLED-ANALYSIS ; CONSORTIUM ; genetic variants ; GENOME-WIDE ; APEX1
    Abstract: Background: The International Lung Cancer Consortium was established in 2004. To clarify the role of DNA repair genes in lung cancer susceptibility, we conducted a pooled analysis of genetic variants in DNA repair pathways, whose associations have been investigated by at least 3 individual studies. Methods: Data from 14 studies were pooled for 18 sequence variants in 12 DNA repair genes, including APEX1, OGG1, XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, ERCC1, XPD, XPF, XPG, XPA, MGMT, and TP53. The total number of subjects included in the analysis for each variant ranged from 2,073 to 13,955 subjects. Results: Four of the variants were found to be weakly associated with lung cancer risk with borderline significance: these were XRCC3 T241M [heterozygote odds ratio (OR), 0.89; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.79-0.99 and homozygote OR, 0.84; 95% Cl, 0.71-1.00] based on 3,467 cases and 5,021 controls from 8 studies, XPD K751Q (heterozygote OR, 0.99; 95% Cl, 0.89-1.10 and homozygote OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39) based on 6,463 cases and 6,603 controls from 9 studies, and TP53 R72P (heterozygote OR, 1.14; 95% Cl, 1.00-1.29 and homozygote OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.42) based on 3,610 cases and 5,293 controls from 6 studies. OGG1 S326C homozygote was suggested to be associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians (homozygote OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79) based on 2,569 cases and 4,178 controls from 4 studies but not in Asians. The other 14 variants did not exhibit main effects on lung cancer risk. Discussion: In addition to data pooling, future priorities of International Lung Cancer Consortium include coordinated genotyping and multistage validation for ongoing genome-wide association studies. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(11):3081-9)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18990748
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its main binding protein, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), have been associated with risk of several types of cancer. Heritable factors explain up to 60% of the variation in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in studies of adult twins. METHODS: We systematically examined common genetic variation in 18 genes in the IGF signaling pathway for associations with circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. A total of 302 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped in 〉5,500 Caucasian men and 5,500 Caucasian women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple testing, SNPs in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes were significantly associated with circulating IGF-I (P 〈 2.1 x 10(-4)); SNPs in the IGFBP3 and IGFALS genes were significantly associated with circulating IGFBP-3. Multi-SNP models explained R(2) = 0.62% of the variation in circulating IGF-I and 3.9% of the variation in circulating IGFBP-3. We saw no significant association between these multi-SNP predictors of circulating IGF-I or IGFBP-3 and risk of prostate or breast cancers. CONCLUSION: Common genetic variation in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes seems to influence circulating IGF-I levels, and variation in IGFBP3 and IGFALS seems to influence circulating IGFBP-3. However, these variants explain only a small percentage of the variation in circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in Caucasian men and women. Impact: Further studies are needed to explore contributions from other genetic factors such as rare variants in these genes and variation outside of these genes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20810604
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  • 3
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; COHORT ; RISK ; GENE ; MECHANISM ; MARKER ; RISK-FACTORS ; mechanisms ; BINDING ; CELL-LINES ; ASSOCIATION ; LINKAGE ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; prevention ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; SNP ; risk factors ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; MARKERS ; cancer risk ; DATABASE ; REGION ; REGIONS ; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM ; nutrition ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; PROGRAM ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; LOCUS ; single-nucleotide ; BLOCKS ; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE-SULFATE ; SEX-HORMONE LEVELS ; prospective ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; ANDROGEN ; BASE-LINE CHARACTERISTICS ; CAG REPEAT POLYMORPHISM ; COMMON VARIANT ; LINKAGE-DISEQUILIBRIUM ; NURSES HEALTH ; POLYGLUTAMINE TRACTS ; POSSIBLE MECHANISMS ; RECEPTOR GENE ; SET ; VITAMIN-D-RECEPTOR
    Abstract: Introduction Androgens have been hypothesised to influence risk of breast cancer through several possible mechanisms, including their conversion to estradiol or their binding to the oestrogen receptor and/ or androgen receptor ( AR) in the breast. Here, we report on the results of a large and comprehensive study of the association between genetic variation in the AR gene and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium ( BPC3). Methods The underlying genetic variation was determined by first sequencing the coding regions of the AR gene in a panel of 95 advanced breast cancer cases. Second, a dense set of markers from the public database was genotyped in a panel of 349 healthy women. The linkage disequilibrium relationships ( blocks) across the gene were then identified, and haplotypetagging single nucleotide polymorphisms ( htSNPs) were selected to capture the common genetic variation across the locus. The htSNPs were then genotyped in the nested breast cancer cases and controls from the Cancer Prevention Study II, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, Multiethnic Cohort, Nurses' Health Study, and Women's Health Study cohorts ( 5,603 breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls). Results We found no association between any genetic variation ( SNP, haplotype, or the exon 1 CAG repeat) in the AR gene and risk of breast cancer, nor were any statistical interactions with known breast cancer risk factors observed. Conclusion Among postmenopausal Caucasian women, common variants of the AR gene are not associated with risk of breast cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16987421
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  • 4
    Abstract: Although use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) generally decreases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, inherited genetic variation in inflammatory pathways may alter their potential as preventive agents. We investigated whether variation in prostaglandin synthesis and related pathways influences CRC risk in the Colon Cancer Family Registry by examining associations between 192 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two variable nucleotide tandem repeats (VNTRs) within 17 candidate genes and CRC risk. We further assessed interactions between these polymorphisms and NSAID use on CRC risk. Using a case-unaffected-sibling-control design, this study included 1621 primary invasive CRC cases and 2592 sibling controls among Caucasian men and women aged 18-90. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two intronic SNPs were associated with rectal cancer risk: rs11571364 in ALOX12 [OR(het/hzv) = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-2.95, P = 0.03] and rs45525634 in PTGER2 (OR(het/hzv) = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.29-0.82, P = 0.03). Additionally, there was an interaction between NSAID use and the intronic SNP rs2920421 in ALOX12 on risk of CRC (P = 0.03); among those with heterozygous genotypes, risk was reduced for current NSAID users compared with never or former users (OR(het) = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.80), though not among those with homozygous wild-type or variant genotypes. The results of this study suggest that genetic variation in ALOX12 and PTGER2 may affect the risk of rectal cancer. In addition, this study suggests plausible interactions between NSAID use and variants in ALOX12 on CRC risk. These results may aid in the development of genetically targeted cancer prevention strategies with NSAIDs.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24908683
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  • 5
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; tumor ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; GENE ; METABOLISM ; TUMORS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; INDIVIDUALS ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SUBSET ; RE ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; ESTROGEN ; single-nucleotide ; haplotype-tagging ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; BASE-LINE CHARACTERISTICS ; 17-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID-DEHYDROGENASE TYPE-1 ; HORMONE-RECEPTOR
    Abstract: The 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 gene (HSD17B1) encodes 17HSD1, which catalyzes the final step of estradiol biosynthesis. Despite the important role of HSD17B1 in hormone metabolism, few epidemiologic studies of HSD17B1 and breast cancer have been conducted. This study includes 5,370 breast cancer cases and 7,480 matched controls from five large cohorts in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We characterized variation in HSD17B1 by resequencing and dense genotyping a multiethnic sample and identified haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP) that capture common variation within a 33.3-kb region around HSD17B1. Four htSNPs, including the previously studied SNP rs605059 (S312G), were genotyped to tag five common haplotypes in all cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for disease. We found no evidence of association between common HSD17B1 haplotypes or htSNPs and overall risk of breast cancer. The OR for each haplotype relative to the most common haplotype ranged from 0.98 to 1.07 (omnibus test for association: X-2 = 3.77, P = 0.58, 5 degrees of freedom). When cases were subdivided by estrogen receptor (ER) status, two common haplotypes were associated with ER-negative tumors (test for trend, Ps = 0.0009 and 0.0076; n = 353 cases). HSD17B1 variants that are common in Caucasians are not associated with overall risk of breast cancer; however, there was an association among the subset of ER-negative tumors. Although the probability that these ER-negative findings are false-positive results is high, these findings were consistent across each cohort examined and warrant further study
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16489054
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  • 6
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; MODEL ; MODELS ; PROSTATE ; COMMON ; COHORT ; HISTORY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; FAMILY ; INDEX ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; NO ; STAGE ; HEALTH ; AGE ; family history ; SNP ; MEN ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; HUMAN GENOME ; BETA ; POPULATIONS ; case-control studies ; BODY ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; REGRESSION-MODELS ; MASS INDEX ; MASSES ; BODIES ; SINGLE ; ONCOLOGY ; case control study ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; FAMILIES ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; GRADE ; regulation ; cell proliferation ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; ESTROGEN ; biomarker ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; analysis ; methods ; HAPLOTYPE ; HAPLOTYPES ; LOCUS ; single-nucleotide ; estrogen receptor ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; USA ; INCREASED RISK ; cancer research ; CANCER-RISK ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; SET ; nested case-control study ; case control ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; BODY-MASS ; BODY-MASS-INDEX ; ER-BETA ; EXONS ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; TAG SNPS
    Abstract: Background: Estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) may play a role in modulating prostate carcirtogenesis through the regulation of genes related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. Methods: We conducted nested case-control studies in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) that pooled 8,323 prostate cancer cases and 9,412 controls from seven cohorts. Whites were the predominant ethnic group. We characterized genetic variation in ESR2 by resequencing exons in 190 breast and prostate cancer cases and genotyping a dense set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) spanning the locus in a multiethnic panel of 349 cancer-free subjects. We selected four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP) to capture common ESR2 variation in Whites; these htSNPs were then genotyped in all cohorts. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sequence variants of ESR2 and the risk of prostate cancer. We also investigated the effect modification by age, body mass index, and family history, as well as the association between sequence variants of ESR2 and advanced-stage (〉= T3b, N-1, or M-1) and high-grade (Gleason sum 〉= 8) prostate cancer, respectively. Results: The four tag SNPs in ESR2 were not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, individually. The global test for the influence of any haplotype on the risk of prostate cancer was not significant (P = 0.31). However, we observed that men carrying two copies of one of the variant haplotypes (TACC) had a 1.46-fold increased risk of prostate cancer (99% confidence interval, 1.06-2.01) compared with men carrying zero copies of this variant haplotype. No SNPs or haplotypes were associated with advanced stage or high grade of prostate cancer. Conclusion: In our analysis focused on genetic variation common in Whites, we observed little evidence for any substantial association of inherited variation in ESR2 with risk of prostate cancer. A nominally significant (P 〈 0.01) association between the TACC haplotype and prostate cancer risk under the recessive model could be a chance finding and, in any event, would seem to contribute only slightly to the overall burden of prostate cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17932344
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