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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Alzheimer's disease ; antibodies ; cerebrospinal fluid ; complement ; hippocampus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Immunocytochemical staining was performed to investigate the presence of anti-hippocampal antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 19), aged normal controls (n = 9), and young normal controls (n = 10). Marked staining of neurons in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and in pyramidal neurons in CA1-3 of the rat hippocampus was observed in 5 AD CSF samples (26%), 1 aged control sample (11%), and 1 young control sample (10%). These differences were not statistically significant. One of the immunoreactive AD CSF specimens also contained high concentrations of C5b-9, the membrane attack complex. The infrequent occurrence of anti-hippocampal antibodies in AD CSF, and the detection of similar immunoreactivity in control CSF specimens, suggest that these antibodies are unlikely to play a role in the neurodegenerative process in most individuals with AD. However, elevated C5b-9 concentration in an AD CSF specimen with marked immunoreactivity to hippocampal neurons suggests the possibility that anti-neuronal antibodies may contribute to complement activation in some AD patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Acute phase proteins ; Alzheimer's disease ; ceruloplasmin ; complement factor 3 ; copper ; interleukin 1-β
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A localized acute phase response occurs in the brain in Alzheimer's disease. Acute phase proteins have previously been measured in brain homogenates to quantify this response. The extent to which measurements of these proteins reflect brain parenchymal contents, as opposed to vascular contents, is unknown. In this study, the acute phase proteins ceruloplasmin (CP), complement factor 3 (C3), haptoglobin (HP), and albumin were measured in regional brain homogenates from phosphate buffered saline-perfused and sham-perfused rats (n = 7–9/group). Interleukin 1-β (IL1-β) and copper were also measured. Mean CP, C3, HP, and albumin concentrations in perfused specimens decreased by 94%, 88%, 90%, and 81% vs. sham-perfused specimens (all p 〈 0.001), while ILl-β and copper were unchanged. These results suggest that acute phase protein measurements in brain homogenates reflect primarily vascular contents. However, IL1-β and copper concentrations in brain homogenates are minimally influenced by vascular contents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Nocardia ; dopamine ; monoamines ; neostriatum ; mice ; Parkinson's disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract BALB/c mice injected intravenously with a single, sub-lethal dose of Nocardia asteroides GUH-2 develop several levodopa responsive movement disorders. These included head-shake, stooped posture, bradykinesia, and hesitation to forward movement (6). The changes in monoamine levels in the brain of these mice were determined. There was a significant loss of dopamine with greatly increased dopamine turnover in the neostriatum 7 to 29 days after infection. These effects were specific for dopaminergic neurons since minimal changes were found in neostriatal norepinephrine and serotonin even though serotonin turnover was increased. Changes in monoamine metabolism were not limited to the neostriatum. There were reduced levels of serotonin and norepinephrine with increased serotonin turnover in the cerebellum. One year after infection, dopamine metabolism had returned to near normal levels, but many of the movement disorders persisted. Specific changes in neurochemistry did not always appear to correspond with these impairments. Nevertheless, these data are similar to those reported in MPTP treated BALB/c mice.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The brain requires a ready supply of iron for normal neurological function, but free iron is toxic. Consequently, iron bioavailability must be stringently regulated. Recent evidence has suggested that the brain iron regulatory system is dysfunctional in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (AD and PD, respectively). A key component of the iron regulatory system in the brain is ferritin. Ferritin consists of 24 subunits, which are distinguished as either a heavy-chain (H) or light-chain (L) isoform. These peptide subunits are genetically and functionally distinct. Thus, the ability to investigate separately the types of ferritin in brain should provide insight into iron management at both the cellular and the molecular level. In this study, the ratio of isoferritins was determined in select regions of adult elderly AD and PD human brains. The H-rich ferritin was more abundant in the young brain, except in the globus pallidus where the ratio of H/L ferritin was 1:1. The balance of H/L isoferritins was influenced by age, brain region, and disease state. With normal aging, both H and L ferritin increased; however, the age-associated increase in isoferritins generally failed to occur in AD and PD brain tissue. The imbalance in H/L isoferritins was disease and region specific. For example, in frontal cortex, there was a dramatic (fivefold) increase in the ratio of H/L ferritin in AD brains but not in PD brains. In PD, caudate and putamen H/L ratios were higher than in AD and the elderly control group. The analysis of isoferritin expression in brain provides insight into regional iron regulation under normal conditions and suggests a loss of ability to maintain iron homeostasis in the two disease states. This latter observation provides further evidence of dysfunction of iron homeostatic mechanisms in AD and PD and may contribute significantly to understanding the underlying pathogenesis of each, particularly in relation to iron-induced oxidative damage.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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