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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Immunogenetics 39 (1994), S. 289-290 
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Keywords: Spectral distribution ; Solar radiation ; Miami
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The spectral distribution of solar radiation was studied under different sky conditions during a 15-month period in Miami, Florida (USA), and over a latitudinal gradient at solar maximum. Spectroradiometric scans were characterized for total irradiance (300–3000 nm) and the relative energetic and photon contributions of the following wavelength regions: UV-B (300–320 nm); UV-A (320–400 nm); B (400–500 nm); PAR (400–700 nm); R (600–700 nm); and FR (728–732 nm). Notable results include: (i) significantly higher UV-A energy fluxes than currently in use for laboratory experiments involving the biological effects of this band-width (values ranged from 33.6 to 55.4 W/m2 in Miami over the year); (ii) marked diurnal shifts in B:R and R:FR, with elevated R:FR values in early morning: (iii) a strong correlation between R:FR and atmospheric water content; and (iv) unusually high PAR values under direct sunlight with cloudy skies (2484 μmol/2 per s).
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Europhysics news 30 (1999), S. 49-50 
    ISSN: 1432-1092
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary: Partial correction of uraemic anaemia restores the baseline hyperkinetic haemodynamics toward normal, reduces left ventricular size and mass and improves exercise tolerance in dialysis patients. These effects may, in large part, be attributed to increases in haematocrit. Information on whether erythropoietin also acts directly on the heart, as it does on the peripheral vasculature, is not available. Also remaining unanswered is the question as to whether the effects of erythropoietin on the heart reduce cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In addition, we do not know whether complete (vs partial) correction of uraemic anaemia will further enhance the beneficial effect of erythropoietin, or whether such gains could be counterbalanced by side effects of erythropoietin, such as the development or exacerbation of hypertension. Studies in the peripheral vasculature suggest erythropoietin also acts directly on the vascular smooth muscle cells, exerting both vasopressive and growth effects. Better understanding of the mechanism and control of such non-erythropoietic actions of erythropoietin can optimize the beneficial effect and minimize the side effect of this hormone on the cardiovascular system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words Tumor vaccine ; Costimulation ; Poxvirus ; Carcinoembryonic antigen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The generation of cytotoxic effector T cells requires delivery of two signals, one derived from a specific antigenic epitope and one from a costimulatory molecule. A phase I clinical trial was conducted with a non-replicating canarypoxvirus (ALVAC) constructed to express both human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and the B7.1 costimulatory molecule. This was the first study in cancer patients to determine if the delivery of costimulation with a tumor vaccine was feasible and improved immune responses. Three cohorts of six patients, each with advanced CEA-expressing adenocarcinomas, were treated with increasing doses of an ALVAC-CEA-B7.1 vaccine (4.5 × 106, 4.5 × 107, and 4.5 × 108 plaque-forming units, PFU). Patients were vaccinated by intramuscular injection every 4 weeks for 3 months and monitored for side-effects, tumor growth and anti-CEA immune responses. ALVAC-CEA- B7.1 at doses up to 4.5 × 108 PFU was given without evidence of significant toxicity or autoimmune reactions. Three patients experienced clinically stable disease that correlated with increasing CEA-specific precursor T cells, as shown by in vitro interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunoassay spot tests (ELISPOT). These three patients underwent repeated vaccination resulting in augmented CEA-specific T cell responses. This study represents the first use of costimulation to enhance antitumor vaccines in cancer patients. This approach resulted in CEA-specific immunity associated with stable diseases in three patients. This study also demonstrated that CEA-specific T cell responses could be sustained by repeated vaccinations. Although the number of patients was small, the addition of B7.1 to virus-based vaccines may improve immunological and stable diseases to vaccination against tumor-associated antigens with tolerable toxicity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Rat proTGF-a messenger RNA was obtained by transcription of a rat proTGF-a complementary DNA6 inserted in the pGEM-4 vector. ProTGF-a mRNA was translated in vitro in a wheat germ translation system containing 35S-cysteine, in the absence or presence of dog pancreas rough microsomal membrane ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Strains of Escherichia coli K-12 carrying mutations at either of two distinct loci (nmpA and nmpB) produce a new outer membrane pore protein which is not present in wild type cells. Mutations at either of these loci result in sensitivity to phage TC45, which can use this new protein as its receptor, and the new protein (the NmpAB protein) appears to be identical in both NmpA and NmpB mutants. In order to determine whether both of these loci contain structural genes for the NmpAB protein, strains carrying secondary mutations at either of these loci which produced altered proteins were sought by selecting for resistance to phage TC45. Mutants which produced proteins with altered electrophoretic mobility and altered peptide maps were isolated from strains carrying both nmpA and nmpB mutations, and these secondary mutations mapped at the same sites as the original mutations leading to production of the NmpAB protein. This suggests that both loci contain structural genes. Strains mutant at nmpB which can no longer produce the protein can mutate at the nmpA locus to produce the new protein, indicating that both genes can exist in the same cell. Since the altered proteins of mutant strains could be distinguished from one another, we attempted to construct strains in which both nmpA and nmpB were expressed. In all cases only the protein produced by the nmpB mutation was produced, indicating some form of cooperative regulation of the two genes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The gene encoding xylanase activity in the ruminal bacteriumBacteroides ruminicola D31d was cloned and expressed inEscherichia coli with the plasmid vector pUC18. The gene was isolated on a 4.7-kilobase pair partialPstI genomic DNA fragment. The xylanase activity expressed inE. coli was cell associated and could degrade both oatspelt xylan and Remazol Brilliant Blue-xylan. The xylanase did not have detectable activity against carboxymethylcellulose. Utilization of an endogenous promoter byE. coli was indicated by expression of xylanase activity after subcloning of the insert into pBR322 in opposite orientations. TheB. ruminicola D31d xylanase gene was compared by Southern hybridization analyses with xylanase genes cloned fromB. ruminocola 23 andB. ovatus V975, a human intestinal isolate. The D31d xylanase gene did not cross-hybridize with either of the other two genes. In addition, the 23 xylanase gene did not cross-hybridize with the other two genes according to the same technique. These results indicate that the three cloned genes do not share a high degree of genetic similarity, despite the similar enzymatic activities. This is the first study to compare cloned genes from ruminal and colonicBacteroides species.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 313 (1985), S. 489-491 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Two mixtures of oligonucleotides, each 17 nucleotides long, were prepared as hybridization probes to identify cDNA clones containing TGF-a sequences. The first, TGF-1 (Fig. 1), encoded amino acids 4-9 of the rat TGF-a sequence7, whereas the second, TGF-2, corresponded to the region of amino acids ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 389 (1997), S. 706-709 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The preparation of synthetic molecules showing the remarkable efficiencies characteristic of natural biopolymer catalysts remains a formidable challenge for chemical biology. Although significant advances have been made in the understanding of protein structure and function, the de novo ...
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