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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Colon cancer ; men ; physical activity ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Previous studies indicate that physical activity is related inverselyto colon cancer risk. However, details regarding that association - whether adose-response relation exists, whether the relation differs between non-obeseand obese persons, the effect of long-term physical activity - are unclear.We examined these issues in the Physicians‘ Health Study (United States).Physical activity was assessed at baseline among 21,807 men, aged 40 to 84years, and again 36 months later. Men were followed for an average of 10.9years (from baseline) during which 217 developed colon cancer. Afteradjusting for potential confounders (including age, obesity, and alcoholintake), the relative risks for colon cancer associated with vigorousexercise in times per week (〈 1, 1, 2-4, 5+, at baseline) were 1.0(referent); 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7-1.7); 1.2 (CI = 0.8-1.6);and 1.1 (CI = 0.7-1.6), respectively; P trend = 0.6. Physical activity wasnot associated significantly with colon cancer risk either among non-obese orobese men. When we used physical activity assessments at baseline as well asat 36 months, physical activity again was unrelated to colon cancer risk.These data do not support the hypothesis that physical activity reduces therisk of colon cancer. Plausible alternate explanations for the null findinginclude misclassification of physical activity and the potential forincreased surveillance for colon cancer (‘screening effect’) among thosephysically active.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer incidence ; height ; men ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Adult height has been found in some but not all studies to be associated positively with overall cancer incidence as well as several site-specific cancers. The Physicians' Health Study (PHS), a randomized trial of beta-carotene and aspirin in the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease in men, provided an opportunity to examine the association between height and total malignant neoplasms (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), as well as site-specific cancers including prostate, colorectal, and lung cancer. The PHS is comprised of 22,071 US male physicians in the United States, a population homogeneous for adult socioeconomic status, aged 40 to 84 years in 1982. Participants were classified into five height categories at study entry. After an average follow-up of over 12 years, there were 2,566 cases of incident total malignant neoplasms, including 1,047 prostate, 341 colorectal, and 170 lung cancer cases. Height was associated positively with both total malignant neoplasms and prostate cancer. Compared with men in the shortest category(≤ 67 inches), relative risks and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI)for total malignant neoplasms for men whose height (in inches) was 68-69,70-71, 72, and 73+ were, respectively: 1.13 (CI = 0.99-1.28), 1.15 (CI =1.02-1.30), 1.29 (CI = 1.12-1.49), and 1.21 (CI = 1.05-1.39), P trend 0.001,adjusted for age, randomized treatment assignments, body mass index (wt/ht2), cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and exercise frequency. For prostatecancer, the corresponding RR values were 1.23 (CI = 1.00-1.51), 1.26 (CI =1.04-1.54), 1.59 (CI = 1.27-1.98), and 1.26 (CI = 1.00-1.59), P trend 0.005.For colorectal cancer, in some but not all height categories compared with the shortest, there were elevated RRs without a significant linear trend: RR= 1.51 (CI = 1.06-2.14), 1.14 (CI = 0.80-1.62), 1.19 (CI = 0.79-1.80), and1.53 (CI = 1.04-2.25), P trend 0.23. In contrast, there was no evidence of an association of height with lung cancer. These data indicate a positive association between height and risk of total malignant neoplasms, as well as of prostate cancer and, possibly, colorectal cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: beta-carotene ; neoplasms ; prevention ; randomized trial
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: The Physicians' Health Study (PHS) was a randomized trial of beta-carotene (50 mg, alternate days) and aspirin in primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease among 22,071 US male physicians. This report updates results for beta-carotene and examines effect modification by baseline characteristics. Methods: Beta-carotene's effect on cancer over nearly 13 years was examined overall and within subgroups defined by baseline characteristics using proportional-hazards models. Results: 2667 incident cancers were confirmed, with 1117 prostate, 267 colon, and 178 lung cancers. There were no significant differences with supplementation in total (relative risk (RR) = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.9–1.0); prostate (RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.9–1.1); colon (RR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7–1.2); or lung (RR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7–1.2) cancer, and no differences over time. In subgroup analyses, total cancer was modestly reduced with supplementation among those aged 70+ years (RR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.7–1.0), daily drinkers of alcohol (RR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.8–1.0), and those in the highest BMI quartile (RR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7–1.0). Prostate cancer was reduced with supplementation among those in the highest BMI quartile (RR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.6–1.0), and colon cancer was reduced among daily drinkers of alcohol (RR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3–0.8). Conclusions: The PHS found no overall effect of beta-carotene on total cancer, or the three most common site-specific cancers. The possibility of risk reduction within specific subgroups remains.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Body mass ; breast cancer ; menopause ; physical activity ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: It is unclear whether physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Some studies also suggest different effects between pre- and postmenopausal women, and lean and heavy women. Methods: We followed 1,566 University of Pennsylvania alumnae (mean age, 45.5 years), initially free of breast cancer, from 1962 until 1993. Physical activity at baseline was assessed by asking women about stairs climbed, blocks walked, and sports played. We estimated energy expenditure and categorized women into approximate thirds (〈 500, 500-999, 1,000+ kcal/wk). We identified 109 breast cancer cases during 35,365 person-years from follow-up questionnaires or from death certificates. Results: After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), the relative risk (RR) of breast cancer was 0.92 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.58-1.45) among women expending 500-999 kcal/wk and 0.73 (CI=0.46-1.14) for those expending 1,000+ kcal/wk, compared with women expending 〈 500 kcal/wk (P trend=0.17). This association was modified by menopausal status, but not BMI. For postmenopausal women, corresponding RRs were 0.95 (CI=0.58-1.57) and 0.49 (CI=0.28-0.86), respectively (P trend=0.015). Increased physical activity in premenopausal women was not significantly associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Conclusions: These data support an inverse association between physical activity and breast cancer among postmenopausal women. Cancer Causes and Control 1998, 9, 433–439
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Description: The Association of Fit-Fat Index with Incident Diabetes in Japanese Men: A Prospective Cohort Study The Association of Fit-Fat Index with Incident Diabetes in Japanese Men: A Prospective Cohort Study, Published online: 12 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-017-18898-3 The Association of Fit-Fat Index with Incident Diabetes in Japanese Men: A Prospective Cohort Study
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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