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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cohort study ; latitude ; melanoma ; United States ; Whites
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The rise in the incidence and mortality from melanoma of the skin is slowing down in younger age groups in the United States. In many White populations, including that of the US, melanoma incidence and mortality rates increase according to proximity of residence to the Equator. Variations with age in this gradient do not seem to have been examined. We examined how the influence of latitude on melanoma rates varied with age. Estimates of age-specific trends by time and by latitude for natural logarithm (Ln) melanoma incidence-rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) programs, and Ln melanoma mortality rates from the US Vital Statistics were derived from fitted regression equations. Unexpectedly, a decline from old age to youth in the influence of latitude was found for both incidence and mortality from melanoma of the skin in males, and for mortality in females. Further, these changes in the relationship to latitude with age correlated with the changes in time trends with age. The link with exposure suggests that the time trends in melanoma are driven by variations in damage to melanocytes in early life that increases sensitivity to sunlight. This has implications for the general understanding of melanoma etiology and for health education.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Age ; melanoma ; migration ; nevus ; pigmentation ; sunlight ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A survey to ascertain factors associated with benign melanocytic nevi or moles was conducted among randomly-selected White adults (aged 18 to 50 years) in Washington State (United States). Participants of the telephone interview in 1990–91 were questioned about lifetime places of residence and constitutional factors. Subjects counted raised nevi on their arms at the end of the survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the risk for two or more nevi compared with no nevi. Individuals who resided in warmer areas and lower latitudes than Washington State were at higher risk of having multiple nevi. This association held for residence at birth, during childhood, adolescence, and over lifetime: an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3 (95 percent confidence interval =1.2–4.3) for lifetime average daily maximum temperature of ≥64°F compared with 58.9°F, and similar ORs of 2.1 for adolescence and 1.8 for childhood. These associations remained significant after adjusting for potential confounding effects of constitutional factors and for childhood sunburns as a potential mechanism. Risk of multiple nevi was reduced for both early age at migration and longer duration of stay in Washington. These data are consistent with the importance of childhood and adolescent sun exposure in the etiology of nevi, but also suggest an effect of lifetime sun exposure.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-725X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7721
    Keywords: video database ; video editing and classification ; dynamic object clustering ; extended object-oriented techniques ; automatic video data structuring ; camera break detection ; key frame selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Video data management is fast becoming one of the most importanttopics in multimedia databases. In this paper, we describe thedevelopment of an experimental video information management system,called “VIMS”, being implemented at the Hong Kong University ofScience & Technology, which employs two fundamental components—i)a Video Classification Component (VCC) for the generation of effectiveindices necessary for structuring the video data, and ii) a ConceptualClustering Mechanism (CCM) having extended object-oriented featuresand techniques. By incorporating CCM concepts and techniques togetherwith the classified features and indices generated from the VCC, theinformation management system enables users to form dynamically, among other things, video programs(or segments) from existing objects based on semantic features/indexterms. A prototype of this system has been constructed, using apersistent object storage manager (viz., EOS), on Sun4 workstations.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1662-9779
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: To address the water mark issue from hydrophobic film drying, and the stringent particle removalrequirements for the 45nm technology node and beyond, we developed a cleaner with an innovativesingle wafer Marangoni dryer. The single wafer Marangoni dryer design features and processcharacterization data are presented in this paper. The major results can be summarized as: (1) Withthe immersion type Marangoni dryer, as the wafer is lifted out of a DIW bath, a stable and uniformmeniscus can be easily maintained, making the single-wafer Marangoni dryer ideal for dryinghydrophilic, hydrophobic or hydrophobic/hydrophilic mixed patterned wafers; (2) The newMarangoni dryer leaves ~14nm [1] water film on the wafer after drying, therefore any dissolved orsuspended materials contained inside the water film, and potentially left on the wafer surface afterwater evaporation, is less than 14nm in diameter. This feature is critical for the 45nm technologynode and beyond because 23nm particle could be killer defects at these nodes [2]; (3) Because of thestrong Marangoni flow effect, high aspect ratio features can be completely dried without leaving anywater droplets inside the trenches; therefore copper corrosion can be prevented; (4) The Marangonidryer uses N2 as the carrier gas, so when a wafer is lifted out of the degasified DIW bath through theN2/IPA spray zone, it is thoroughly dried in an oxygen-free environment before exposure to theambient environment; (5) The Marangoni dryer is free of electrostatic charge and centrifugal forcebecause of the slow (2mm/s~20mm/s) wafer linear lifting speed compared to linear speed at waferedge during SRD
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1662-9779
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: As 65nm technology in mass production and 45nm technology under development, post etch ash andcleaning faces new challenges with far more stringent requirements on surface cleanliness andmaterials loss. The introduction and integration of new materials, such as metal hard mask, createsadditional requirements for wafer cleaning due to the occurrence of new defect modes related to metalhard mask. We have optimized a post etch ash process and developed a novel aqueous solution (AQ)based single wafer cleaning process to address these new defect modes. Physical characterizationresults and process integration electrical data are presented in this paper
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Anti prostatic acid phosphatase ; Monoclonal antibody ; Intra lymphatic ; PAY 276 ; 111In
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The ability of111In-PAY 276 (anti prostatic acid phosphatase antibody) in detecting pelvic lymph node metastasis following bipedal intra lymphatic administration was studied in five patients with carcinoma of the prostate. The labeled antibody was injected directly into the lymphatics of each foot. Planar and tomographic images radioactivity content of lymph nodes resected during staging pelvic lymphadenectomy were compared to the histologic and immunoperoxidase findings. Radioactivity in pelvic lymph nodes was prominently seen within 20 min of injection and was present 16 days later. Persistent accumulation of tracer in the lymphatics of the lower extremities was also observed in all patients 16 days post injection. Radioactivity counts in tumor-free lymph nodes were higher than in tumored lymph nodes resected. Our results demonstrate that intra lymphatic administration of111In-labeled PAY 276 monoclonal antibody has major technical limitations, and that further research directed at the causes of tracer accumulation in the lymphatics and tumor-free lymph nodes is required.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis (CHUC) is a chronic debilitating disease of boxer dogs. Study of this disorder may provide information essential to the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms that result in progressive large bowel ulceration. In this study, large intestinal mucosal biopsy specimens from seven affected boxers and four normal dogs were examined by light and electron microscopy. The earliest morphologic change discernible was focal, acute inflammation and epithelial cell degeneration at the luminal surface of the large bowel. These latter changes were nonspecific in nature. The basement membrane of affected epithelium consistently was effaced and intercellular spaces were dilated. Neutrophils were found between intact, degenerating epithelial cells and within the subjacent lamina propria. Convincing evidence for an infectious cause of CHUC was not found. Observed microorganisms probably were secondary invaders since they were present only in lesions exhibiting actual epithelial disruption. The PAS-positive macrophages, which are pathognomonic for the disease, were engorged with numerous digestive vacuoles that mainly contained phospholipid membranes. A developmental sequence was observed which suggested that these PAS-positive cells arose from the actively phagocytic, normal-appearing macrophages found in the surface-oriented mucosal lesions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-2991
    Keywords: environmental opinions ; China ; students ; primary and secondary
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This study aims at comparing broadly the environmental concerns and opinions between Hong Kong and Beijing students. This is based on an earlier study in Australia which adopted a qualitative approach, using five open-ended question items. In their written comments the children's environmental opinions and concerns were explored. In general, upper primary students tended to be concerned more about the social environment relating to society, while junior and senior secondary students expressed more concern about the social environment relating to the nation and global issues.
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