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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cohort effects ; incidence ; melanoma ; registries ; SEER ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The incidence of malignant melanoma has been increasing steadily in the United States. The increase may be due to lifestyle changes in subsequent generations or birth cohorts. The nine population-based tumor registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER) have been in existence for a sufficient time to begin to investigate cohort trends for the US population. Cases were the 18.787 Caucasians aged 20 to 84 years, who reported to SEER registries with a diagnosis of melanoma in 1974–86. Among men born between 1890 and 1919, each subsequent five-year birth cohort experienced 45 to 57 percent increases in age-adjusted melanoma incidence of the arm and trunk, and 14 to 20 percent increases were experienced across each site (arm, leg, head, and trunk) for the 1920–44 cohorts of men. Among women born between 1890 and 1919, 24 to 29 percent increases were seen for melanoma of the trunk, arms, and legs for each subsequent five-year birth-cohort, followed by six to 29 percent increases in the 1920–44 cohorts. Recent birth cohorts, 1945–64, have shown stabilizing rates, even after an attempt to adjust for the increasing tendency for diagnoses to be made in doctors' offices. Thus, the dramatic birth-cohort effects appear to have ended beginning with those born in 1945. However, melanoma rates will continue to rise until those born after 1945 represent the majority of the population. Furthermore, for the most recent cohorts, the trunk has become the most common site (per square meter of body surface) for men and the second most common site for women. This suggests that some lifestyle change has led to more damaging exposure (e.g., sunburns) of the trunk among recent cohorts than earlier cohorts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Age ; melanoma ; migration ; nevus ; pigmentation ; sunlight ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A survey to ascertain factors associated with benign melanocytic nevi or moles was conducted among randomly-selected White adults (aged 18 to 50 years) in Washington State (United States). Participants of the telephone interview in 1990–91 were questioned about lifetime places of residence and constitutional factors. Subjects counted raised nevi on their arms at the end of the survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the risk for two or more nevi compared with no nevi. Individuals who resided in warmer areas and lower latitudes than Washington State were at higher risk of having multiple nevi. This association held for residence at birth, during childhood, adolescence, and over lifetime: an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3 (95 percent confidence interval =1.2–4.3) for lifetime average daily maximum temperature of ≥64°F compared with 58.9°F, and similar ORs of 2.1 for adolescence and 1.8 for childhood. These associations remained significant after adjusting for potential confounding effects of constitutional factors and for childhood sunburns as a potential mechanism. Risk of multiple nevi was reduced for both early age at migration and longer duration of stay in Washington. These data are consistent with the importance of childhood and adolescent sun exposure in the etiology of nevi, but also suggest an effect of lifetime sun exposure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cohort study ; latitude ; melanoma ; United States ; Whites
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The rise in the incidence and mortality from melanoma of the skin is slowing down in younger age groups in the United States. In many White populations, including that of the US, melanoma incidence and mortality rates increase according to proximity of residence to the Equator. Variations with age in this gradient do not seem to have been examined. We examined how the influence of latitude on melanoma rates varied with age. Estimates of age-specific trends by time and by latitude for natural logarithm (Ln) melanoma incidence-rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) programs, and Ln melanoma mortality rates from the US Vital Statistics were derived from fitted regression equations. Unexpectedly, a decline from old age to youth in the influence of latitude was found for both incidence and mortality from melanoma of the skin in males, and for mortality in females. Further, these changes in the relationship to latitude with age correlated with the changes in time trends with age. The link with exposure suggests that the time trends in melanoma are driven by variations in damage to melanocytes in early life that increases sensitivity to sunlight. This has implications for the general understanding of melanoma etiology and for health education.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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