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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  There are many reports of patients with a severe hydroa vacciniforme (HV)-like eruption in which cutaneous lesions occur in both sun-exposed and non-exposed areas, unlike in true HV. Several patients have died from a malignant haematological neoplasm. In most cases, a latent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection has been detected in the skin lesions.Objectives  To describe the clinical and laboratory features of six additional patients with an EBV-associated HV-like eruption.Methods  The clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features were reviewed. T-cell receptor γ gene rearrangements were studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and heteroduplex analysis. In-situ hybridization was performed to detect mRNA for EBV in skin biopsy specimens. PCR was performed to screen for EBV infection in the skin lesions of three patients and blood of two patients. Photoprovocation with repeated ultraviolet (UV) A exposure was performed in three patients.Results  The severity of the skin lesions and the clinical course varied among the patients. Skin lesions were induced by repeated UVA exposure in three patients and a latent EBV infection was demonstrated in the photoprovoked lesions.Conclusions  Three different clinical courses were found in six patients with an HV-like eruption associated with chronic EBV infection: (i) spontaneous remission; (ii) clearing after photoprotection; and (iii) continuous recurrence irrespective of sun exposure. It is possible that there are two patterns of HV-like eruption associated with chronic EBV infection. One is characterized by recurrent necrotic papulovesicles of the face and the other by nodules and facial swelling. It was demonstrated that the skin lesions could be triggered by repeated UVA exposure in the patients showing recurrent necrotic papulovesicles of the face.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0921-4534
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0921-4534
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0921-4534
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Isotretinoin ; Comedones ; Keratinization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of isotretinoin on experimentally induced comedones was studied by means of histoplanimetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To induce comedone formation, insoluble cutting oil was applied to the ventral surface of the ears of rabbits for 2 weeks. After comedones formed, isotretinoin was fed to the rabbits by a feeding tube, daily, for 4 weeks. A low dose (2.0 mg/kg) and a high dose (20.0 mg/kg body weight) were selected for two different groups. Soybean oil served as the vehicle. Histoplanimetrically, the high-dose group showed a significant decrease in size of comedones when compared to the control group and the low-dose group [P〈0.005], and in the high-dose group, the follicular lumen contained a small number of loose, non-adherent, horny cells. Upon SEM examination, the comedones were seen to have a ‘chrysanthemum’ appearance before treatment. After treatment, the high-and low-dose groups both showed evidence of the elimination of comedones on three-dimensional analysis.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 52 (1988), S. 1698-1700 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The electrical properties of thin nitrided oxide (∼100 A(ring)) formed by rapid thermal nitridation (RTN) in pure NH3 have been studied. It is found that the current-voltage characteristic of RTN oxides follows a Fowler–Nordheim tunneling behavior with modifications caused by electron trapping processes at the oxide surface and interface. The trapping density is dependent on the RTN conditions. At the interface, both fixed charge (Nf) and interface state (Dit) densities exhibit turnaround phenomena when the RTN process proceeds. The maximum values of Nf and Dit at the turnaround points are lower for the higher temperature RTN, suggesting a viscous flow related strain relieving mechanism associated with RTN of thin oxides. Films with superior endurance behavior (QBD=20.4 C/cm2 compared with QBD=5.1 C/cm2 of thermal oxide under 10 mA/cm2 constant current stress) have been obtained by RTN at 1000 °C, 10 s.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 89 (2001), S. 7797-7808 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The effects of dielectric layers on electromigration failure were studied in situ using a high-voltage scanning electron microscope and at the wafer level using conventional accelerated testing. Several different passivation layers were deposited on wafers with A1 interconnect test structures. Prior to the deposition of the final dielectric, the wafers were processed identically and, whenever possible, simultaneously. Interconnects encapsulated with compliant polymer and very thin (0.1 μm) SiO2 layers demonstrated substantial lifetime extensions over those with more rigid (1 μm thick) SiO2 layers. Unpassivated lines behaved dramatically differently and failed much sooner than those covered with only 0.1 μm of SiO2. As expected, increasing the passivation thickness from 0.5 to 4 μm increased the electromigration lifetime for SiO2 covered specimens. The fabrication of silicon dioxide dielectrics using electron-cyclotron-resonance chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) and silicon nitride dielectrics via plasma-enhanced CVD damaged the interconnects. This damage nearly completely removed the barrier to void nucleation during electromigration. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: An apparatus has been constructed to conduct electromigration tests on realistic specimens while simultaneously observing them at relatively high magnification. A scanning transmission electron microscope has been converted into a high-voltage scanning electron microscope (HVSEM) with a large specimen chamber. By imaging with high-energy electrons (120 keV) and detecting backscattered electrons, voids in metal lines can be viewed through passivation layers. The HVSEM has a resolution of 50 nm through 1 μm of passivation. We have constructed instrumentation to heat and pass current through interconnect structures, while they are inside the electron microscope. Presently, the specimen temperature can be as high as 350 °C and is maintained constant to within 0.1 °C. The resistances of interconnects are measured with a precision of 0.05% during an experiment. Testing the lines at moderately accelerated conditions requires great stability of the microscope and instrumentation as well as full automation of the data collection. These requirements have been met, and metallization lines can be tested for several weeks with minimal operator intervention. Digital images of an entire 300-μm-long test structure as well as electrical data are stored automatically every few minutes during a test. The hundreds to thousands of pictures are analyzed using digital image processing techniques to extract void positions and sizes as a function of time. We use this system to characterize electromigration failure in advanced interconnect structures and to test existing theories on electromigration phenomenon. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα), which binds IL-4 and IL-13, is involved in signal transduction of those cytokines that lead to IgE production, and is also a key functional component of the Th2 lymphocyte phenotype.Objective To determine whether IL-4 and IL-4Rα polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to asthma and whether there are gene–gene interactions between IL-4 and IL-4Rα polymorphisms.Methods We genotyped three groups of Korean children, consisting of 196 atopic asthmatics, 60 non-atopic asthmatics, and 100 healthy children, for an IL-4 promoter polymorphism (C-590T) and three IL-4Rα polymorphisms (Ile50Val, Pro478Ser, and Arg551Gln) using PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) assays.Results The allele frequencies of the IL-4 (C/T) polymorphism and the Ile50Val and Pro478Ser polymorphisms of IL-4Rα did not differ statistically among the three groups of children. For the Arg551Gln polymorphism, the combined genotype frequency of the Arg/Gln heterozygote and the Arg/Arg homozygote was significantly higher in atopic asthmatics (27.6%) than in healthy children (16.0%) (odds ratio (OR)=1.97, 95% CI (confidence interval)=1.07–3.71). The eosinophil fraction (%) and bronchial responsiveness were higher in children with the Arg/Gln and Arg/Arg genotype than in those with the Gln/Gln genotype (P=0.036 and 0.024, respectively). In asthmatic children, combinations of the IL-4 CT/TT genotype and the IL-4Rα Arg/Gln and Arg/Arg genotypes were associated with significantly increased risk for development of asthma (OR=3.70, 95% CI=1.07–12.78, P=0.038).Conclusions In Korean children, the IL-4Rα Arg551 allele may play a role in susceptibility to atopic asthma and correlate with markers of asthma pathogenesis, including increased eosinophil fraction and enhanced bronchial hyper-responsiveness. In addition, a significant gene–gene interaction between the IL-4-590C and the IL-4Rα Arg551 allele significantly increases an individual's susceptibility to asthma.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study aimed to determine whether a preceding airway response to one allergen leads to priming of the airway responses to another allergen. Twelve asthmatic children who had positive prick tests to two allergens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D.p.) and German cockroach (CR), participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. We performed two consecutive inhalation challenges, D.p. challenge being followed 48 h later by CR challenge. The effect of initial (D.p.) challenge on the early and late airway responses to the subsequent (CR) challenge (CR2) was examined by comparing the responses with those to CR challenge preceded by sham challenge (CR1). The geometric mean PD20 of CR allergen in the CR2 was 2.8 BU (breath unit) (range of 1 SD; 0.77-10.4), which was 12.0-fold less than that (33.7 BU, 10.8-105.2) in the CR1. The administration of a 6.1–fold less dose (8.9 BU, 2.7-28.8) in the CR2 than hi the CR1 (54.5 BU, 44.1-69.3) provoked a similar degree of late-phase reactions (18.7±7.3% vs 15.8 ± 9.6%). Our data indicated that the early- and late-phase reactions to CR challenge were augmented by the preceding reaction to D.p. This suggests that a preceding airway response to one allergen may lead to priming, with enhancement of the early and late airway responses to the subsequent challenge with another allergen.
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