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  • 1
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Recently metal oxides, especially tin oxides, have been investigated as negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. Different compounds such as amorphous SnO2, SnO and SnSiO3 have been electrochemically cycled versus a metallic lithium electrode. In this study, the reversible capacities as well as the cycling behavior of crystalline SnO2 thin films and powders have been investigated. SnO2 powder exhibits a reversible capacity as high as 600 mAh/g over more than 50 cycles versus a metallic lithium electrode. Based on these results, we give clues for the future investigations of metal oxides as anodes in lithium ion batteries and discuss what can be the expected capacities of such negative electrodes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract • Background: Scanty information is available on the changes in conformational structure and composition of human lens capsule in cases of hereditary congenital cataract. The purpose of this study was to use Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to determine the secondary structure and composition of hereditary cataractous human lens capsule, as compared with normal human lens capsule. • Methods: FT-IR spectroscopy with the Fourier self-deconvolution and curve-fitting program was performed, and second-derivative analysis was used to verify the peak positions and assignments of the IR spectra. • Results: The curve-fit FT-IR spectra revealed that the content of hydroxylysine and arginine were clearly higher in the lens capsule of the hereditary congenital patient, but the content of aspartic acid significantly lower, than in normal human lens capsules. The secondary conformational changes in a-helix, triple helix and random coil structures were important findings in the lens capsule of a hereditary cataractous patient. • Conclusion: Possible alterations in secondary structures and compositions of lens capsule are observed in the hereditary congenital cataractous patient by using FTIR spectroscopy with curve-fitting and second-derivative analysis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 25.70.−z ; 25.70.Lm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The competition between fusion-fission and deeply inelastic reactions in the Cl + Ni system has been studied by investigating the exit channelQ-value dependence of theZ-distributions of fission-like fragments. TheZ-, kinetic energy- and angular distributions of the fission-like fragments produced in the37Cl +64Ni system atE lab=170, 186 MeV and in the28Si +74Ge system atE lab=176 MeV have been measured by counter telescopes. TheZ-distribution of the37Cl +64Ni system was found to be essentially the same as that of the35Cl +62Ni system at the same bombarding energy. It is shown that this result can not be explained by the statistical fusion fission model but is consistent with a deeply inelastic model. A systematic study of the fission-like phenomenon in this mass region indicates that the maximum angular momenta for fusion reactions as well as the minimum angular momenta for DIC can be reproduced by the Bass model in the sliding limit (f=1.0) while the maximum angular momenta for fully energy-damped deeply inelastic reactions are governed by the strong interaction radius as predicted by the successive critical distance fusion model. The significance of these results are discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 25.70.Lm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The energy damped reaction products from37Cl+12C,27Al,48Ti and16O+48Ti were measured over a wide range of angles (typically 18°〈θ lab〈70°), incident energies (160 〈E lab(37Cl)〈200 MeV,E lab(16O)=118 MeV) and charges Z, including two systems (37Cl+37Al and16O+48Ti) which lead to the same compound nucleus64Zn with the same excitation energy and comparable angular momenta. The angular dependences of total kinetic energy (TKE) and dσ/dθ were decomposed into two components (forward peaked and nearly constant at backward angles), and the elemental TKE and cross sections were derived. The backward components of37Cl+27Al and16O+48Ti exhibit very different Z-distributions, indicating that the fragments do not originate from compound nucleus decay. The results can be understood in terms of an energy damping process.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 25.85.Ge ; 25.70.Jj ; 25.70.Gh
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We examine what information can be obtained from fission angular distributions through precise measurements and an analysis in terms of the simple statistical model of Ericson. We report on the systematics of the decoupling angle and present the role of the angular momentum coupling between the entrance and the exit channel. The results indicate that the directional coupling of the angular momentum in the entrance and the exit channel is always strong for heavy-ion induced fission, and the angular momentum coupling plays a decisive role on the angular distribution of fission fragments. The average channel spins of fission fragments 〈If〉 are deduced through the decoupling angles determined experimentally. They agree well with γ-multiplicity measurements.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 25.70.Jj ; 25.70.Lm ; 25.85.Ge
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The binary decay properties of the47V nucleus, produced in the35Cl +12C reaction, have been investigated at the35Cl bombarding energiesE lab = 180 and 200 MeV by means of a kinematical coincidence technique. Binary reaction products show full energy equilibration and a characteristic 1/sin(θ cm) angular distribution. The elemental distribution of the fully-damped products is asymmetric, similar to what has previously been observed in the decay of the56Ni nucleus. Comparison with theoretical model predictions suggests the occurrence of a fusion-fission rather than orbiting process. Moreover the calculations performed using the Extended Hauser-Feshbach Method reproduce well the experimental fission yields. A general discussion of orbiting and fusionfission experimental data of light heavy-ion systems is presented in the framework of the calculated number of available open channels for these systems.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: high dose ; Hodgkin's lymphoma ; patterns ; relapse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background:High-dose chemotherapy has an established role inrecurrent or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) although a significantproportion of patients subsequently relapse. This manuscript describes theclinical characteristics of such patients and documents their furthermanagement at two major UK cancer centres. Patients and methods:Between 1987 and 1996 one hundred patientswith recurrent or refractory HL received high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) withautologous haematopoietic rescue. All had recurred within 12 months of initialtherapy or had two or more recurrences. Results:With a median follow-up of 2 years, 56 patients arecurrently progression-free. There were six treatment-related deaths. Onepatient died of pneumonia in remission. Thirty-seven patients have relapsed,intrapulmonary disease being seen for the first time in 53% andrecurrence at previous sites of disease in 81%. Following recurrence,therapy was determined by circumstances: either one agent at a time was used(single sequential approach) or multiagent chemotherapy was chosen. There wasa survival advantage for those who achieved a symptomatic response (13 vs. 4months median, P = 0.0001). A trend towards longer survival was seenfor those whose disease recurred beyond six months following high-dosechemotherapy and in those who received combination chemotherapy. Conclusions:These results confirm that HDCT with autologoushaematopoietic support is inadequate for about half the patients who receiveit for high-risk HL. Relapse in the site of prior disease is the most likelypattern with intrapulmonary disease for the first time occurring frequently.It is possible to administer further chemotherapy after failure of HDCT, andboth objective as well as subjective benefit can be achieved. A few patientsappear to get long-term benefit from further treatment.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Danaus plexippus ; monarch butterflies ; Lepidoptera ; Danaidae ; Asclepiadaceae ; milkweeds ; Asclepias syriaca ; Asclepias speciosa ; ecological chemistry ; chemical defense ; cardenolides ; aspecioside ; desglucosyrioside ; syriobioside ; overwintering
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The majority (85%) of 394 monarch butterflies sampled from overwintering sites in Mexico contain the same epoxy cardenolide glycosides, including most conspicuously a novel polar glycoside with a single genin-sugar bridge (aspecioside), as occur in the milkweedsAsclepias speciosa andA. syriaca. This cardenolide commonality was established by isolating aspecioside and syriobioside from the wings of overwintering monarchs and the two plant species, and comparing Chromatographie and NMR spectrometric characteristics of the isolates. When combined with the migratory pattern of monarchs and the distribution of these two milkweed species, this chemical evidence lends strong support to the hypothesis thatA. syriaca is the major late summer food plant of monarchs in eastern North America. This finding may be of ecological importance, forA. syriaca contributes less cardenolide and cardenolides of lower emetic potency to monarchs than most milkweeds studied to date.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-9486
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The experimental data have been compared with the result of extensive compound nucleus calculations based on the statistical theory. The shapes and the absolute cross sections for the high energy parts of the proton- and α-spectra are reproduced with a level density parametera ≃ 0·11 A MeV−1 and a moment of inertiaJ≃1·3J rig. The same parameters fairly well reproduce the angular distributions corresponding to the high energy parts of the spectra whereas deviations between theory and experiment are observed for the lower energies where particles emitted by higher order processes contribute. The observed total cross section for emission of an α-particle is 500 mb or 1·7 times calculated value. For protons the corresponding numbers are 2313 mb and 3·0. The increase in cross section is ascribed to the process in which several particles are evaporated. Various methods are discussed for determination of the average orbital angular momentum of the emitted particle or the average spin of the daughter nucleus.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-9486
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Highly excited compound nuclei of74Kr have been formed by bombardment of58Ni with 70 MeV16O ions. The spectra of protons and α-particles resulting from the decay of the compound nucleus (and several daughter nuclei) have been recorded at laboratory angles from 30° to 155°. The CM differential cross sections corresponding to definite energies for the particles emitted were calculated from the data. The charged particle spectra and the angular distributions show that evaporation processes are dominant. A study of spectral shapes and angular distributions has to some extent made it possible to distinguish primary particles from those evaporated after the emission of one or several particles.
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