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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 235 (1993), S. 453-460 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Hepatic mesenchyme ; Portal areas ; Hemopoiesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Eosinophilic granulopoiesis was investigated in human fetal liver during intrauterine life from 5 to 34 weeks of gestation. Eosinophilic granulocytes were observable for the first time at 5 weeks in the hepatic laminae and were frequently found in the late embryonic period around the large vessels and in the mesenchyme adjacent to the liver. Eosinophilic granulopoiesis increased gradually in the hepatic laminae (P 〈 0.01) after 20 weeks of gestation and in the portal areas (P 〈 0.05) after 16 weeks of gestation. The proportions of each cellular differentiation stage were relatively constant during fetal life, but a greater number of mature eosinophils were observed in the portal areas. Eosinophilic granulopoiesis was evident in all the hepatic tissue components, but developed more actively in portal areas than in hepatic laminae during intrauterine life. Eosinophilic granulopoiesis preceded both erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis in the human embryonic liver. Although the latter two occurred mainly in the hepatic laminae, eosinophilic granulopoiesis developed more actively in the portal areas, where it exhibited increasing activity along with the development of the component cells. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: One of the pathophysiological features of Alzheimer's disease is astrocytosis around senile plaques. Reactive astrocytes may produce proinflammatory mediators, nitric oxide, and subsequent reactive oxygen intermediates such as peroxynitrites. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of the C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein (CT-APP), which is another constituent of amyloid senile plaque and an abnormal product of APP metabolism, as an inducer of astrocytosis. We report that 100 nm recombinant C-terminal 105 amino acid fragment (CT105) of APP induced astrocytosis morphologically and immunologically. CT105 exposure resulted in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways as well as transcription factor NF-κB. Pretreatment with PD098059 and/or SB203580 decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. But inhibitors of NF-κB activation did not affect MAPKs activation whereas they abolished NO production and attenuated astrocytosis. Furthermore, conditioned media derived from CT105-treated astrocytes enhanced neurotoxicity and pretreatment with NO and peroxynitrite scavengers attenuated its toxicity. These suggest that CT-APP may participate in Alzheimer's pathogenesis through MAPKs- and NF-κB-dependent astrocytosis and iNOS induction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite, is known to have toxic effects in brain. However, the molecular mechanism of the toxicity has not been well identified. In this study, we investigated the involvement of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the 3-HK-induced neuronal cell damage. Our results showed that 3-HK induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and ERK phosphorylation occurred during cell death. Inhibition of ERK activation using PD98059 considerably increased cell death. Furthermore, cell death was preceded by mitochondrial malfunction including collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol. Interestingly, inhibition of ERK dramatically increased mitochondrial malfunction, and enhanced caspase activation, resulting in enhanced neuronal cell death. Thus, our results show that ERK plays a protective role by maintaining mitochondrial function and regulating caspase activity under conditions of cellular stress.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis and BOX-repeat-based PCR (BOX-PCR) genomic fingerprinting were performed on 25 Bacillus strains to investigate the genetic relatedness of Bacillus anthracis to the closely related species. Based on VNTR analysis, all B. anthracis strains could be assigned to (VNTR)4, which is the most commonly found type in the world. Interestingly, a (VNTR)2 was also observed in Bacillus cereus KCTC 1661 and with an exact match to the tandem repeats found in B. anthracis. This finding has never been reported before in the closely related species. According to the BOX-PCR, B. anthracis strains clustered together and separated reliably from the closely related species. However, B. cereus KCTC 1661 was linked to the B. anthracis cluster and showed close relationships with B. anthracis strains. These results indicated that there was a strong correlation between VNTR analysis and BOX-PCR genomic fingerprinting.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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