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  • 1
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Keywords: electrogenerated Chemiluminescence ; Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ; detector ; flow injection analysis ; HPLC ; biosensing ; immunoassay ; DNA probe assay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ru(bpy) 3 2+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (CL) has rapidly gained importance as a sensitive and selective detection method in analytical science. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is observed when Ru(bpy) 3 3+ reacts with Ru(bpy) 3 + and yields an excited state Ru(bpy) 3 2+* . ECL emission can also be obtained when a variety of oxidants and reductants react with the reduced or oxidized forms of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Either the reductant or the oxidant can be treated as an analyte. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is used as a detection method for the determination of oxalate and a variety of amine-containing analytes without derivatization in flowing streams such as flow injection and HPLC. When the ECL format is used as a detector for HPLC, unstable post-column reagent addition can often be eliminated and, the problems of both sample dilution and band broadening can be avoided because the Ru(bpy) 3 3+ species are generatedin situ in the reaction/observation flow cell. Since NADH is sensitively detected with the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL, many clinically important analytes can be detected by coupling them to dehydrogenase enzymes that utilize β-nicotinamide adenine cofactors to convert NAD+ to NADH. Ru(bpy) 3 2+ -derivatives are used as CL labels for immunoassay and PCR assay with Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /tripropylamine ECL system. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL label can be sensitively determined at subpicomolar concentrations, along with an extremely wide dynamic range of greater than six orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it can eliminate disposal and lifetime problems inherent in radio immunoassays. In this paper, basic principles of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are discussed. In addition, analytical applications of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are illustrated with examples.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 438 (2005), S. 243-247 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Synaptic receptors respond to neurotransmitters by opening an intrinsic ion channel in the final step in synaptic transmission. How binding of the neurotransmitter is conveyed over the long distance to the channel remains a central question in neurobiology. Here we delineate a principal pathway ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Key words Dominant ataxia ; Trinucleotide repeats ; Molecular ; analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCAs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by degenerative symptoms in the cerebellum, spinal cord, and brain stem. Six different genes have been reported to be associated with ADCA, and the length of trinucleotide repeats of these genes is correlated with the age at onset and severity of symptoms. Although there are strong hereditary effects in these disorders, most of the studies carried out in heterogeneous populations and in small groups obscure the true incidence of these diseases. We examined the frequency of six types of ADCAs in 87 unrelated Korean patients with progressive ataxia and compared the results to the frequencies in other ethnic groups. Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 2 was the most frequent hereditary ataxia (12.6%) and types 3 and 6 accounted for 4.6% and 6.9% of ataxia patients, respectively. Dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy was also found in three patients (3.4%). No instances of SCA types 1 or 7 were detected. These findings show the striking contrast to the white population and a difference from Japanese findings. Our results demonstrate that dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy should be included in the differential diagnosis of Korean patients with spinocerebellar ataxia, and that there are strong hereditary effects in patients with ADCAs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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