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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Trends in Biotechnology 4 (1986), S. 186-189 
    ISSN: 0167-7799
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0385-6380
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Seed storage proteins ; LMW-GS genes ; Molecular evolution ; Triticum tauschii ; Wheat quality ; Bacterial expression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The isolation and characterisation by DNA sequencing of two different low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) genes from a genomic library derived from Triticum tauschii is described. These genes are similar (more than 90% similarity) but not identical to previously published LMW-GS gene sequences from cultivated wheats. A comparison of nucleotide sequence of the coding regions revealed the presence of insertions and deletions preferentially located in the region encoding the domains in the LMW-GS proteins rich in proline and glutamine and the middle part of the C-domain. The signal sequences, the amino-terminus and the remaining parts of the C-domain were conserved between all the LMW-GSs compared. The differences detected between the deduced amino-acid sequences in these three regions are only due to single nucleotide substitutions. The most important characteristic of all compared LMW-GS genes is the conservation of eight cysteine residues that could be involved in potential secondary or tertiary structure and disulphide-bond interactions. Comparisons between the 5′ and 3′ non-coding sequences of one of the isolated clones (LMW-16/10) with those of different prolamin genes from wheat, barley and rye led to the distinction of five different gene families, and confirmed the evolutionary relationships determined previously for these genes mainly on the basis of the coding region. In particular, the LMW-GS sequences are more closely related to the B-hordein sequences than to any other prolamin genes from wheat, barley and rye. Formal proof that the isolated genes coded for LMW-GSs, as defined by gel electrophoresis, was obtained by moving one of these genes (LMW-16/10) into a bacterial expression vector based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The resulting plasmid directed the synthesis of large amounts of the mature form of the subunit in Escherichia coli. This protein exhibited solubility characteristics identical to those of the LMW-GSs and cross-reacted with antibodies reactive with these proteins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits ; A genome wheats ; Tris-Tricine PAGE ; Variation in genes by PCR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A Tris-Tricine gel-electrophoresis system (Schaegger and von Jagow 1987), combined with a gradient gel, has been employed to provide an improved resolution of the B and C low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) found in the endosperm of wheat grain. The gel system was used to document the variation in the gluten subunit proteins present in A-genome diploid wheats. The majority of LMW-GSs found in the A-genome diploid wheats were not present in normal bread wheats; the data suggest that they represent a rich source of new variation for the LMW-GSs which are considered to be very important in modulating wheat flour-processing properties. The analysis of variation in the nature of the LMW-GS genes, using PCR, demonstrated that the subclass of C-subunits assayed by primers from a previously published sequence did not show as much variation as the proteins. However, the data collected suggest that sufficient variation may exist in the LMW-GS genes of A-genome diploid wheats to use them as a source of genes for altering the flour-processing properties of hexaploid wheat.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit proteins ; Gene sequence ; Expression in bacteria ; A genome wheats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Three accessions of T. boeoticum were selected for the cloning and sequencing of novel low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) genes, based on the results of SDS-PAGE and PCR analyses of the LMW-GS diversity in A-genome wheat (Lee et al. 1998 a). A comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino-acid sequences of three cloned genes, LMWG-E2, LMWG-E4 and LMWG-AQ1, both to each other and to other known LMW-GS genes was carried out. The N-terminal domains showed one variable position; GAG (coding for a glutamic acid) for the E-type, and GAT (coding for an aspartic acid) for the Q-type. The comparisons of the LMW-GSs in the literature and this paper define three different types of N-terminal sequences; METSCIPGLERPW and MDTSCIPGLERPW from the durum and A-genome wheats, and METRCIPGLERPW from the hexaploid and D-genome wheats. The repetitive domains were AC-rich at the nucleotide level and coded for a large number of glutamine residues; this region showed 16 variable positions changing 12 amino-acid residues, three triple nucleotide deletions/additions, a large deletion of 18 nucleotides in LMWG-E4 and a deletion of 12 nucleotides in LMWG-E2. In the C-terminal domains 26 variable positions were found and 12 of these mutations changed amino-acid residues; no deletions/ additions were present in this region. It was shown that the LMWG-E2 and LMWG-E4 genes could be expressed in bacteria and this allowed the respective protein products to be related back to the proteins defined as LMW-GSs in vivo.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Low-weight glutenin subunits ; Single proteins ; extensibility ; Dough properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Three genes encoding the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs), LMWG-E2 and LMWG-E4, from A-genome diploid wheat species, and LMW-16/10 from a D-genome diploid wheat, were expressed in bacteria. The respective proteins were produced on a relatively large scale and compared with respect to their effects on flour-processing properties such as dough mixing, extensibility and maximum resistance; these are important features in the end-use of wheat for producing food products. The LMWG-E2 and LMWG-E4 proteins caused significant increases in peak resistance and mixing time, compared to the control, when incorporated into dough preparations. The LMWG-16/10 protein was qualitatively less effective in producing these changes. All three proteins also conferred varying degrees of decrease in dough breakdown. LMWG-E2 and LMWG-E4 caused significant increases in dough extensibility, and decreases in maximum resistance, relative to the control. LMW-16/10 did not show a significant effect on extensibility but showed a significant decrease in maximum resistance. The refinement of relating specific features of the structure of the LMW-GS genes to the functional properties of their respective proteins is discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Comamonas testosteroni P15 and its mutant strain E23 can tolerate and utilize phenol as the sole source of carbon and energy at up to 15 mM and 20 mM, respectively. Compared to the wild type P15, mutant E23 showed higher values of K s and K i but a lower μmax value, and had lower phenol hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activities. Without phenol exposure, mutant E23 demonstrated a two-fold greater amount of cardiolipin than the wild type P15. Upon exposure to phenol, an increase in cardiolipin at the expense of phosphatidylethanolamine was observed in the wild type P15. However, there was no significant difference in major phospholipid contents between mutant E23 cells grown in the presence or absence of phenol. It was noted that the ratio of trans/cis fatty acids of phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin in mutant E23 was 65–70% higher than that in the wild type P15. In the absence of phenol, the degree of saturation of cardiolipin in mutant E23 was 33% higher than that in wild type P15. In contrast to earlier findings, an increase in C16:1 9trans with a simultaneous decrease in C18:1 11cis instead of C16:1 9cis was observed in specific classes of phospholipids.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference in the colour and colour change of dental resin composites over commonly used two backgrounds. Colour of five uncured and cured resin composites before and after polishing with 600-, 1000- or 1500-grit SiC paper was measured according to the CIELAB colour scale relative to the illuminant D65 over a white background (WB; reflectance = 91·57%) and a light trap (LT; reflectance = 0·01%) on a reflection spectrophotometer with the SCE geometry. Colour difference (ΔE*ab) by the background, and by the specimen conditions over each of two backgrounds was calculated. ΔE*ab values between the same specimen by the background were 2·38–11·60. ΔE*ab values by the specimen condition were varied by the background, and ΔE*ab between cured/polished specimens over WB were significantly higher than those over LT (P 〈 0·05) except a few cases. Background influenced three-colour coordinates of CIE L*, a*, and b* values differently depending on the material and the specimen condition. Background significantly influenced the colour coordinates and colour difference by the specimen conditions. As the light trap can eliminate the influence of variations at the background, measured colour over the light trap can be the colour of material itself. Correlation between the measured colour and varied shades of background should be further studied.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of thermocycling on the changes of elastic modulus (EM) and colour, and to evaluate cytotoxicity after repeated elution of short-term-use soft liners. Three short-term-use soft liners [soft acrylic-based Coe Comfort (CCM), Coe Soft (CST) and Soft Liner (SFL)], and long-term-use silicone-based Tokuso Soft Liner (TSL) acting as a control were studied. EM was measured at baseline and after thermocycling at 5–55 °C for 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 cycles. For the colour measurement, specimens in discs 20 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness were prepared, attached to a denture base resin plate, and then thermocycled as above. Colour change (ΔE*) was measured according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*, a*, and b* scale on a spectrophotometer. For the cytotoxicity evaluation, specimens were eluted for 24 h in culture media repeatedly up to four times, and MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed. EM of CCM and CST increased up to 1500 and 1000 cycles of thermocycling respectively. EM of SFL gradually increased up to 2000 cycles, and that of TSL increased after 500 cycles and did not change after then. ΔE* of soft liners after 2000 cycles except CCM were 3·68–8·65. EM increased up to 1000–1500 cycles, and perceivable colour change was observed after 2000 cycles in most materials. Therefore, short-term-use soft liners should be used within a limited time, although the cytotoxicity decreased after repeated elution.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the various light curing units (plasma arc, halogen and light-emitting diodes) and irradiation methods (one-step, two-step and pulse) using different light energy densities on the leachability of unreacted monomers (Bis-GMA and UDMA) and the surface hardness of a composite resin (Z250, 3M). Leachability of the specimens immersed for 7 days in ethanol was analysed by HPLC. Vicker's hardness number (VHN) was measured immediately after curing (IC) and after immersion in ethanol for 7 days. Various irradiation methods with three curing units resulted in differences in the amount of leached monomers and VHN of IC when light energy density was lower than 17·0 J cm−2 (P = 0·05). However, regardless of curing units and irradiation methods, these results were not different when the time or light energy density increased. When similar light energy density was irradiated (15·6–17·7 J cm−2), the efficiency of irradiation methods was different by the following order: one-step ≥ two-step 〉 pulse. These results suggest that the amount of leached monomers and VHN were influenced by forming polymer structure in activation and initiation stages of polymerization process with different light source energies and curing times.
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