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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Amaranthus palmeri ; Palmer amaranth ; allelopathy ; seed germination ; weed residue ; volatiles ; ketones ; alcohols ; 2-heptanone ; 2-heptanol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Allelopathic volatiles associated with the weed Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.; AMAPA) were trapped on Tenax GC, thermally desorbed, and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Methyl ketones and alcohols (C4–C11) were the principal components of the volatiles mixture. Seedheads, stems, or roots were placed in a glass container and incubated at 31 °C (10 hr)/21 °C (14 hr) for three days prior to trapping the volatiles. Seedheads were rich in 2-heptanone which was consistently found, together with 2-heptanol, in all AMAPA tissues. Vapors of authentic 2-heptanone and (±)-2-heptanol at concentrations of 1 ppm or higher strongly inhibited the germination of onion and carrot and almost completely suppressed the germination of tomato and AMAPA seeds.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A gas chromatograph/quadrupole mass spectrometer system, operated in electron impact/selected ion monitoring mode, is used to determine the intensity ratio of the m/z 59 and the m/z 58 ions of the [C3H8N]+ fragment derived from methamphetamine samples synthesized with varying amounts of 13C-labeled methylamine. Crude products are introduced into the gas chromatograph without prior cleanup. The ratios measured were in excellent agreement with those calculated. A change in 0.25% use of 13C-methylamine is sufficient for product differentiation. The feasibility of using isotope labeling and subsequent mass spectrometric isotope ratio measurement as the basis of a compound tracing mechanism is discussed. Specifically, if methamphetamine samples manufactured from legal sources are asked to incorporate distinct 13C compositions, their sources can be traced when samples are diverted into illegal channels. Samples derived from illicit preparations can also be traced if the manufacturers of a precursor (methylamine in this case) incorporate distinct 13C compositions in their products.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Raw, freshly cooked, stored and recooked beef muscle samples were assessed by chemical, instrumental and sensory methods of analyses for flavor quality, with particular emphasis on warmed-over flavor (WOF). The character notes used by a trained sensory panel to describe WOF were cardboardy, rancid, stale, and metallic. Samples analyzed by direct gas chromatography utilizing either packed or fused silica capillary columns showed that compounds usually associated with lipid oxidation reactions could be used as marker compounds to follow the development of WOF. Of the many compounds that appeared to be markers, hexanal and 2,3-octanedione as well as total volatiles showed a highly significant degree of correlation when compared to sensory scores and 2-thiobar bituric acid (TBA) numbers. Many of the volatile compounds that were identified in WOF meat samples were also found in the distillates prepared for the TBA reaction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Meat loaves supplemented with various amounts of textured storage and classical (nonstorage and storage) protein isolates from glandless cottonseed were analyzed for volatile compounds by direct gas chromatography. Seventeen volatile compounds were identified by combined direct gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Natural logarithms of hexanal and hexanol and of ratios of hexanal and hexanol to chloroform correlated well with taste panel scores for aroma, initial flavor, after-taste, and overall flavor.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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