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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-19
    Description: Introduction Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) prevent disease through both direct protection of vaccinated individuals and indirect protection of unvaccinated individuals by reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and transmission of vaccine-type (VT) pneumococci. While the indirect effects of PCV vaccination are well described, the PCV coverage required to achieve the indirect effects is unknown. We will investigate the relationship between PCV coverage and VT carriage among undervaccinated children using hospital-based NP pneumococcal carriage surveillance at three sites in Asia and the Pacific. Methods and analysis We are recruiting cases, defined as children aged 2–59 months admitted to participating hospitals with acute respiratory infection in Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia and Papua New Guinea. Thirteen-valent PCV status is obtained from written records. NP swabs are collected according to standard methods, screened using lytA qPCR and serotyped by microarray. Village-level vaccination coverage, for the resident communities of the recruited cases, is determined using administrative data or community survey. Our analysis will investigate the relationship between VT carriage among undervaccinated cases (indirect effects) and vaccine coverage using generalised estimating equations. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the relevant ethics committees at participating sites. The results are intended for publication in open-access peer-reviewed journals and will demonstrate methods suitable for low- and middle-income countries to monitor vaccine impact and inform vaccine policy makers about the PCV coverage required to achieve indirect protection.
    Keywords: Public health, Open access, Global health
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: NO ABSTRACT
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0323-7648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Polymerica 34 (1983), S. 761-761 
    ISSN: 0323-7648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Visual evoked potentials ; Scalp field distributions ; Upper vs lower hemiretina
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Scalp potential fields in human subjects were evoked by checkerboard reversals to the upper and lower hermiretinae, using 1.6 and 3.2 reversals/s. Averaged fields were sampled along a saggital midline row of electrodes (field profiles) in 20 subjects, and from a 47 electrode array (field maps) in five subjects. In five subjects, profile peaks and troughs between 84 and 128 ms latency resided within the recorded electrode row surrounded by lesser potential values, and thus met the evaluation criteria. Response latency defined as maximal voltage difference between two electrodes within the profiles was significantly shorter (medians 12 and 11 ms, respectively) for upper than for lower hemiretina stimuli at both frequencies. There was a significant difference between latencies to 3.2 and 1.6 stimuli/s in the upper but not in the lower hemiretina system, suggesting different system behavior of the two retinal halves. Pertinent anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral data are reviewed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Visual evoked potentials ; Scalp field EP distribution ; Monocular vs binocular stimuli ; Upper vs lower hemiretina
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Scalp potentials evoked by monocular and binocular 2/s checkerboard reversals with checks of 56 or 14 min were recorded from four midline electrodes between inion and 7.5 cm above inion vs a common anterior reference in 31 normals. The electrode location and latency of the evoked maximal occipitally positive potential difference between any 2 of the 5 electrodes, between 80 and 140 ms latency was determined in each run. Mean maximum locations over subjects for upper hemiretinal, binocular stimuli were more anterior than for monocular stimuli; for lower hemiretinal stimuli, inverted location differences were found. Binocular responses also had shorter latencies than monocular responses. Since area 18 is more anterior to 17 for upper, more posterior to 17 for lower hemiretinal projection to cortex, the results suggest that neurons which respond only if both eyes are simultaneously stimulated are more frequent in higher than lower order visual areas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: digoxin ; spironolactone ; immunoassay ; cross-reactivity ; therapeutic monitoring ; assay inaccuracy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of renal and/or hepatic dysfunction, and of concomitant spironolactone therapy, on seven commercial digoxin assays was evaluated in 45 patients taking both these drugs, and a comparison made with the digoxin concentrations measured using the same assays in 30 patients taking digoxin in the absence of spironolactone. The study showed that increasing renal dysfunction resulted in increasing inaccuracy in assay results with the methods tested. The influence of concomitant spironolactone was to produce a further distortion, which was shown to be additive in patients with impaired renal and/or liver function. The results highlight the unresolved specificity problems which persist in many, if not all, of the immunoassays currently offered to clinical laboratories which, if not recognised, could significantly influence digoxin therapy and patient management.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Respiratory distress syndrome ; Ambroxol ; Clinical trial ; Double blind study ; Newborn infants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to test the ability of Ambroxol to improve the clinical course of respiratory distress syndrome and to reduce the incidence of complications a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial was conducted. Entry was limited to infants with a birth weight below 1500g. A total of 179 neonates were enrolled, but 31 were later excluded because they had other diseases. Of the remaining 148 babies, 74 received Ambroxol (birth weight 1190±216g; gestational age 29.1±1.9 weeks) and 74 placebo (birth weight 1168±216g; gestational age 28.9±1.9 weeks). In the Ambroxol group 23 (31%) and in the placebo group 27 (37%) infants died during the first 5 months of life. In 28 day-survivors Ambroxol was able to significantly improve the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, mean airway pressure, phospholipid profile of tracheal effluent and pulmonary mechanics of spontaneously breathing infants. In addition, the incidences of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (29% vs 54%), intraventricular haemorrhage (25% vs 44%) and postnatally acquired pneumonia (15% vs 36%) were significantly reduced in the Ambroxol group as compared to the control group. No adverse events attributed to the Ambroxol treatment were reported.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-055X
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Kreisteil ; Hyperkapnie ; grenzwertige Beschädigung ; Inspirationsventil ; Gerätecheckliste ; Key words Draeger respiratory circuit ; Valve malfunction ; Borderline damage ; Hypercapnia ; Forensic risk
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Unnoticed, minor damage to the unidirectional respiratory valves of the Draeger respiratory circuit may lead to intermittent and unpredictable malfunction, resulting in rebreathing and hypercapnia. The damage may be so minor that normal visual and functional test routines may be insufficient to detect it. We report one case of a potential life-threatening malfunction of the inspiratory valve and also propose economical solutions utilizing altered construction, modified machine-check procedures, or a simple instrument that adds only one step to the machine-check procedure. The general problem of minor but functionally important damage to parts of ventilatory equipment – so-called borderline damage – may not be limited to this particular model or manufacturer. Most users of ventilatory equipment believe that equipment that goes through normal check procedures is either fully functional or non-functional. In reality, this is not the case. Intermittent malfunctions due to slightly damaged equipment may be missed with normal machine-check procedures. This problem results in a significant but incalculable increased in risk to patients. Because of unclear reproduceability of intermittent malfunctions caused by borderline damage, there also is an increased forensic risk for the anaesthesiologist. The risk of mechanical malfunction might be displaced by software problems in new-generation ventilators in the market.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Durch unbemerkte, grenzwertige Beschädigung der Führungsstifte kann es bei den Inspirations- und Exspirationsventilen des Dräger-Kreissystems zu einer Fehlfunktion kommen, die zu einer potentiell vital bedrohlichen Rückatmung führt. Die Ausprägung der Beschädigung kann derart gering sein, daß sie auch durch eine gewissenhafte Sichtprüfung nicht ohne weiteres erkannt wird. Da diese Fehlfunktion intermittierend auftreten kann, schützt auch die jetzt übliche, vom Hersteller vorgesehene Funktionsprüfung des Geräts vor Inbetriebnahme durch den Benutzer nicht sicher vor der Gefahr durch diese grenzwertig beschädigten Ventile. Es wird über den Fall einer solcherart entstandenen Hyperkapnie berichtet. Die prinzipielle Problematik der Identifizierung grenzwertig beschädigter Bauteile und der derzeitig üblichen Geräteüberprüfung wird diskutiert, und es werden unter ökonomischen Aspekten akzeptable Lösungsmöglichkeiten aufgezeigt. Aufgrund der nicht immer gewährleisteten Reproduzierbarkeit der Fehlfunktion bedeuten grenzwertige Beschädigungen für Patient und Anästhesist ein erhebliches, unkalkulierbares Risiko.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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