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  • 1
    ISSN: 0300-9416
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0300-9416
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of toxicology 17 (1958), S. 73-76 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird das Krankheitsbild einer akuten schweren Vergiftung mit Trinitrotoluoldämpfen beschrieben und in seiner Symptomatologie den subakuten und chronischen Verlaufsformen gegenübergestellt. Die Grundzüge der Behandlung dieses schweren Vergiftungsbildes werden kurz dargelegt. Der Patient konnte ohne nennenswerten Funktionsausfall bereits am 13. Krankheitstag aus der Kliniksbehandlung entlassen werden.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Zink und Kupfer im menschlichen Organismus sind arbeitsmedizinisch unter den verschiedensten Aspekten von Interesse. In Ergänzung zu früheren Untersuchungen über den Mineral- und Spurenelementhaushalt chronisch hitzebelasteter Schwerarbeiter sollte in der vorliegenden Arbeit geprüft werden, ob es unter derartigen Arbeitsplatzbedingungen zu einer negativen Bilanz von Zink und Kupfer kommt. Gleichzeitig sollte der Frage nachgegangen werden, ob Beziehungen zwischen Veränderungen des Serumzinks einerseits und eventuellen hitzebedingten Leberparenchymschäden andererseits bestehen. Bei 55 Hitzearbeitern eines Stahlwerkes wurden neben Serumkupfer und Serumzink als leberdiagnostische Screening-Tests die Aktivitäten der SGOT, SGPT und alkalischen Serumphosphatase bestimmt sowie eine Serumeiweißelektrophorese durchgeführt. Als Vergleichskollektiv dienten 27 Schwerarbeiter ohne Hitze-exposition aus dem gleichen Werk.
    Notes: Summary Serum copper and zinc were determined in 55 heat exposed workers. As liver screening tests analyses of SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase in serum, and an electrophoresis were performed too. A control group of 27 heavy workers had no heat exposure. In heat exposed workers serum copper and zinc were decreased. SGOT and alkaline phosphatase in serum were increased but this is no sufficient sign for liver injury. The elevated SGOT level is rather due to a secondary hyperaldosteronism described in heat exposed workers formerly. The hyperaldosteronism does not protect against a loss of copper and zinc by sweat.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Bestimmung der Koproporphyrin- and ALA-Ausscheidung ist heute vielfach fester Bestandteil eines Suchprogramms bei der Überwachung Bleigefährdeter. Dabei werden die entsprechenden Methoden oft kritiklos und ohne Kenntnis der analytischen Zuverlässigkeit eingesetzt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit sollten die gebräuchlichsten Verfahren, die quantitative Koproporphyrinbestimmung nach Reinkingh (1964), die halbquantitative Porphyrinbestimmung nach Mappes (1966) and der Porphyrinschnelltest nach Hoschek (1955) Bowie die ALA-Bestimmung nach Grabecki u. Mitarb. (1967) hinsichtlich ihrer Zuverlässigkeit geprüft werden. Mit Hilfe statistischer Prüfverfahren ließ sich nachweisen, daß die Methoden nach Reinkingh and Mappes dem Zweck einer Routineuntersuchung durchaus noch angepaßt sind, während die Methode nach Hoschek selbst als Suchtest mit einem zu großen subjektiven Fehler behaftet ist. Die für eine Bleiintoxikation wesentlich spezifischere ALA-Ausscheidung im Harn zeigt bei der Bestimmung nach der Methode von Grabecki (1967) eine sehr gute Genauigkeit (v =1,9 %). Bei einem beruflich nicht bleibelasteten Kollektiv (n = 86) ergab sich eine mittlere ALA-Ausscheidung von 4,3 mg/g Kreatinin (s = 1,48), aus der eine obere Toleranzgrenze von 10 mg ALA/g Kreatinin (p 〈 0,001) errechnet wurde. Die Brauchbarkeit der Untersuchung der ALA-Ausscheidung wurde an 265 beruflich Bleigefährdeten zweier Betriebe bei gleichzeitiger Bestimmung des Blutbleispiegels geprüft. Fur beide Teilkollektive ergaben sich fur die ALA-Ausscheidung folgende Mittelwerte: $$\begin{gathered} ALA (mg/g Kreatinin) Pb (II) (\mu g - \% ) \hfill \\ A: 10,2 \pm 6,0 47,3 \pm 24,8 \hfill \\ B: 12,0 \pm 5,6 26,0 \pm 12,4 \hfill \\ \end{gathered} $$ Aufgrund der Regressionsanalysen erwies rich die ALA-Bestimmung im Sinne eines works condition tests fur eine Aussage über die Höhe einer Bleibelastung ungeeignet, besitzt aber eine Dignität fur deren Form.
    Notes: Summary Determinations of urinary CP and ALA are usually screening tests in the supervision of lead exposed workers. For the determination of CP the quantitative method by Reinkingh, the semiquantitative method by Mappes, and the rapid test by Hoschek are frequently used. For the determination of ALA recently the method of Grabecki is used. The subject of this paper was to examine these methods with regard to their reliability. By means of statistical tests it was demonstrated that the methods by Reinkingh and Mappes are quite satisfactory for the purposes of a screening program, but the method by Hoschek is not so. Beeing highly specific for the action of lead the ALA estimated by the method of Grabecki has a very good reliability (v =1,9 %). In subjects professionally not exposed to lead the amounts of ALA were below 10 mg/gm creatinine ( $$\bar x$$ : 4.3 mg/gm creatinine, s: 1.48). Urinary ALA and blood lead levels of 265 wokers exposed to lead in two plants were determined. According to the results of analyses of regression it was supposed that the determination of ALA is of no value for a works-condition-test regarding to the amount of lead exposure but quite well a criterion for the type of exposure.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Unter dem Aspekt einer Prävention beruflich bedingter Gesundheitsschäden durch eine Langzeitexposition gegenüber subtoxischen Konzentrationen organischer Lösungsmittel werden gaschromatographische Methoden zur quantitativen Bestimmung von Benzol und Toluol in Luft- und Blutproben vorgestellt. Die Blutanalyse bedient sieh dabei des Verfahrens der sogenannten Dampfraumanalyse. Bei Bruttoretentionszeiten von 1,2 min für Benzol und 2 min für Toluol lassen sich die untersuchten aromatischen Lösungsmittel frei von störenden Substanzen erfassen. Eine hohe analytische Zuverlässigkeit und sehr geringe Nachweisgrenzen ermöglichen die arbeitsmedizinische überwachung auch gering Exponierter. Der Arbeitsaufwand ist minimal, so da\ sich das Verfahren auch für die routinemä\ige Serienanalyse eignet.
    Notes: Summary With regard to the hygienic risk of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents the estimation of xenometabolically produced substances is now and then insufficient. Sometimes it may be necessary to determine the organic solvents themselves in biological materials, especially in blood. However, the methods now available are too insensitive to detect lower concentrations. To complete the diagnostic program in the health supervision of workers exposed to lower concentrations of benzene and toluene gas chromatographic methods for the determination of these substances in air and in blood are presented. The timesparing analysis of blood samples is basing on the head space technic. The total retention time for benzene is 1.2 min, that of toluene is 2.0 min. There is no disturbing background in the gas chromatograms, neither for benzene nor toluene. The accuracy expressed as the recovery amounts to about 100%. The precision (v=1.5 to 4.1%) is satisfactory. The detection limits for the two organic solvents are very low both in air and in blood. So the method is suited for the health supervision even of low exposed persons.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Trichloroethylene ; Benzene ; Toluene ; Trichloroacetic acid ; Phenol ; Hippuric acid ; Accumulation ; Screening test
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a cross-sectional investigation the results of 6126 toxicological monitoring examinations in occupational medicine of workers who were exposed to trichloroethylene, benzene or toluene were statistically evaluated. It was investigated whether a cumulative behaviour of the solvent metabolites trichloroacetic acid, phenol or hippuric acid leads under working conditions to varying rates of excretion on different days of the week and as a result leads to consequences in the evaluation of hazards in occupational medicine. It was shown that the excretion of trichloroacetic acid increased during the working week by a statistically significant amount. Corresponding monitoring examinations should therefore only be made as a rule before the end of the week. The excretion of phenol shows a different weekly profile which can be attributed to the longer biological half-life of benzene. With the same average rates of excretion of phenol the concentration of phenol in urine rises substantially on Fridays. In the excretion of hippuric acid the weekly profile cannot be attributed to influences due to the working place or the work schedule. It must be attributed to alimentary factors.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Carbon disulphide ; 2-Thio-1,3-thazolidine-4-carboxylic acid ; Creatinine ; Viscose ; Air monitoring ; Biological monitoring
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Carbon disulphide (CS2), a reagent of rayon production, is known for its high toxic potential and has therefore been the subject of many clinical studies. The aims of the study presented here were to determine the effective exposure to CS2 and to compare the validity of the different exposure indicators. Internal and external exposure to CS2 was investigated in 362 male workers of a viscose factory. The CS2 air concentrations measured through stationary air monitoring in five different work areas (n = 39) were compared with the values of active personal air monitoring (n = 51) and passive personal air monitoring (n = 352). In addition, in all investigations biological monitoring was carried out by measuring the 2-thio-1,3-thiazolidine-carboxylic acid (TTCA) excretion in urine. A significant correlation was found between the data for active and passive personal air sampling (y = 0.99, x + 0.31, r = 0.968). The results of the stationary measurements led, however, to values which were systematically too low. The validity of TTCA excretion in urine as a parameter of biological monitoring could for the first time be verified in a large sample of subjects. There was a linear correlation between TTCA values in the urine related to both volume and creatinine [y (TTCAmg/g creatinine) = 0.315 x (ml CS2/m3 air) + 0.59] and the CSZ values in the air. Nevertheless, TTCA excretion proved to be dependent upon creatinine so that the excreted amounts related to creatinine described the individual exposure more exactly.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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