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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of pineal research 3 (1986), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Rats on 22.5-hr light:dark cycles had vaginal opening significantly earlier than rats on 26-hr light:dark cycles. This finding might explain the early menarche in blind girls: Their circadian rhythms, like those of rats on 22.5-hr cycles, might be more rapid than normal. Thus a set number of cycles can occur in a shorter time than usual, allowing puberty to take place early.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; estrogen receptor gene ; polymorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We previously identified a polymorphism in the human estrogen receptor (ER) gene, within the coding region for the protein's amino terminal B-domain. In estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast tumors, the variant allele was preferentially associated with lower levels of ER, and was clinically correlated with frequent spontaneous abortions. DNA sequencing revealed a point mutation that changes codon 86 from Ala to Val and a silent mutation in codon 87. Because we initially detected the variant allele by analyzing RNA, only those tissues in which the ER gene is actively expressed were suitable for genotype analysis. We now describe an assay that uses genomic DNA as the substrate for determining the ER B genotype; DNA containing the polymorphic region of the ER gene is amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, then the amplified DNA is hybridized with radiolabeled oligonucleotide probes complementary to the wild type and variant ER alleles. This method allowed us to determine the ER B genotype of women with ER+ and ER− tumors, starting with minute amounts of DNA from frozen or paraffin embedded tissues. ER B genotyping was also performed on women without breast cancer using DNA extracted from blood cells. The combined results from analyses of RNA and DNA from 300 breast cancer patients showed that 12% were heterozygotes. In the ER+ group (n=183), 11.5% carried the variant gene compared to 12.8% in the ER-negative group (n=117) (χ2=0.11; df=1; p〉0.25). No link to tumor histology could be established. Preliminary data on DNA from blood of healthy women over the age of 50 (n=64) yielded a slightly lower ER B-variant frequency (9.4%); this frequency was not significantly different than that in the breast cancer groups. Thus, while the variant ER allele is associated with low ER levels in ER positive breast tumors, its frequency is not different in the ER+ and ER− tumor groups and may be unrelated to breast cancer development.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have previously reported that a history of pregnancy is independently associated with axillary node involvement in breast cancer patients. We have now studied additional women with breast cancer and have used our data and the logistic model to produce nomograms for determining the risk of axillary node involvement, based on tumor size, age, and number of pregnancies. There was an increase in the incidence of axillary node involvement in women with a history of pregnancy. To exclude the confounding effect that tumor size or age might have on node involvement, logistic regression was performed. Pregnancy, tumor size, and age were the three independent variables. History of pregnancy had a significant effect on node involvement (P=0.036) that was independent of tumor size and age. Nomograms were constructed from these data. Surgeons do not perform an axillary dissection in every breast cancer patient. If the axilla is clinically negative and the tumor small, the surgeon, medical oncologist, and radiation oncologist may decide that a dissection need not be done. The nomograms in this article may allow for a more methodical choice of patients for axillary dissection. Moreover, a radiation oncologist might use the nomograms to help decide whether to irradiate an undissected axilla.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; estrogen receptor ; genetics ; spontaneous abortion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We previously identified a polymorphism in the human estrogen receptor gene. In a preliminary study on women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast tumors, we found that the presence of the rarer of the two alleles, the B' allele, is correlated with a history of spontaneous abortion. Because that study evaluated only women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, it was unknown whether the observed correlation was restricted to the cancer group or was independent of breast cancer. We have now extended our analysis to include not only additional women with ER+ breast cancer, but also those with estrogen receptor negative (ER−) breast cancer and women without cancer. Results of the current study continue to show an association between the B' allele and a history of spontaneous abortion in the ER+ breast cancer group. There was no such correlation either in the ER− breast cancer group or in the group without cancer. Also, we continue to observe, in the ER+ breast cancer group, a significantly higher concentration of ER protein in tumors from homozygous wild type women (genotype BB), than in the tumors from women who are heterozygous for the rarer allele (genotype BB'). We conclude that the combination of spontaneous abortion and the BB' ER genotype may be a marker for breast cancer susceptibility.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Digestive diseases and sciences 23 (1978), S. 572-573 
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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