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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A method using cutting resistance measurements during low-speed threading for identification of various bone densities has been evaluated with regard to its precision and potential. Pig ribs were used as test samples. Differing hand pressure, minor deviation (5") from a vertical tapping direction and individual threading did not reveal any significant differences in cutting resistance values. After implants were inserted into the threaded canals, the total bone as well as trabecular and compact bone areas surrounding the implants were calculated via a computer program and using microradiographs of the bone test samples. The outcome of the cutting resistance measurements was compared with that of the microradiographic technique, and good agreement was observed between the two procedures in the ability to identify bone density. Therefore, cutting resistance measurements may in the future also be used to clinically identify bone qualities in jaws
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In order to test the soft tissue response to contaminated titanium components, 20 clinically retrieved abutment cylinders were inserted in the abdominal wall of 5 rats. Prior to insertion, 10 of the abutments had been contaminated for 1 min and the remaining components for 2 weeks. Five abutments of either group were ultrasonically cleaned in butanol and ethanol, whereas the remaining abutments were only rinsed in saline before being implanted. As controls, 5 newly manufactured abutments were used. After 6 weeks of healing, specimens were prepared of the components and surrounding tissues for morphological analysis. This showed an accumulation of macrophages and a reduction of the number of fibroblasts around the abutments that had been contaminated, irrespective of cleaning procedure, compared with the controls. It was concluded that the contaminated components induced an altered tissue response and that a similar reaction may occur in the clinical situation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present study was to examine the microbiota on the internal surface of the components of 28 Brånemark implants® in 10 partially edentulous patients who had been treated with 1 fixed partial prostheses each. The prostheses had been in function for 1 to 8 years. The fixed prostheses were checked for mobility and removed. The abutment screws were loosened and classified as stable, easily removed or loose. Then, bacterial samples were obtained from the various internal surfaces of the implant system. Estimation and identification of the most predominant species was performed on the blood agar plates. Identification was based on Gram reaction, oxygen sensitivity and biochemical tests. Internal surfaces of different components of the Brånemark implants®, after varying periods of function in the oral cavity, consistently harboured a heterogeneous and primarily anaerobic microbiota. The individual samples showed a great variation. No relation could be seen between type and length of abutment, abutment stability, bone loss and type and number of microorganisms found in the samples. The flora consisted mainly of facultative and anaerobic streptococci, Gram-positive anaerobic rods such as Propionibacterium, Eubacterium and Actinomyces species and Gram-negative anaerobic rods including Fusobacterium, Prevotella and Porphyomonas species. There are reasons to suggest that this presence of bacteria is the result of (i) a contamination of the fixture and abutment components during the 1st and/or 2nd stage of implant installation and/or (ii) a transmission of microorganisms from the oral environment during function subsequent to bridge installation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Four cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) were studied immunohistochemically, using monoclonal antibodies against the M1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and different cytokeratin polypeptides. The FEH lesions showed, compared to normal oral mucosa, extensive alterations in their staining patterns. This included ectopic suprabasal M1 staining and the novel expression of cytokeratin polypeptides differing from those previously reported for other HPV infections. The results arc discussed in relation to the causative agent, human papillomuvirus, and its expression in focal epithelial hyperplasia.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the present study, the influence of initial instability on the healing of titanium implants was studied in 9 lop-eared rabbits. Titanium implants (Brånemark System®) were inserted in the tibiae, a location with cortical bone only. in such a way that they were either stable (control), rotation-mobile, or totally mobile. Implants were also inserted in the distal femoral condyles, representing an implantation bed with mainly cancellous bone, so they either showed no initial mobility (control) or were rotation-mobile. After 12 weeks of healing, the implants were retrieved, together with surrounding bone, fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in plastic resin. About 10 μm thick ground sections were prepared for light microscopic morphometry. The mineralized bone to titanium contact, and the amount of bone occupying the threads, were calculated, whereafter the outcome of the different locations were compared. All retrieved implants were clinically stable at the end of the experiment. For the tibia sites, a statistically significant less bone to titanium contact, and a less amount of bone in the threads, were found for the totally mobile implants, as compared tothe corresponding initially stable controls. Moreover, a statistically significant higher amount of bone was found in the threads of the rotation-mobile implants inserted in the femoral condyle as compared to their initially stable controls. The study indicated that initial rotation-mobility, independent if it occurs in cortical or trabecular bone, does not necessarily lead to an inferior integration of unloaded implants. However, initial total implant mobility within the cortical layer results in a statistically significant less amount of lb one around the implants, as compared to stable controls.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This investigation had 2 aims: 1) to determine the levels of acute-phase proteins and immunoglobulin G (IgG) against Porphyromonas gingivalis in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) and their association with the clinical condition of the peri-implant mucosa; and 2) to compare the inflammatory and immunological responses at implants and teeth as reflected by the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and PICF levels of acute-phase proteins and immunoglobulins. Thirty-one partially edentulous subjects were recruited for this study. PICF was sampled from 1 healthy and 1 inflamed site from each patient; GCF was sampled from an additional 21 healthy and 27 inflamed tooth sites of the same patients. GCF and PICF were collected with paper strips (for 30 s) and analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for α2-macroglobulin, α1-antitrypsin, transferrin, lactoferrin and IgG against P. gingivalis. This investigation demonstrated that the absolute amounts of the acute-phase proteins and IgG against P. gingivalis are higher in GCF and PICF from inflamed than healthy sites. No significant differences were observed between PICF and GCF components at either healthy or inflamed sites, suggesting that inflammatory and immune events are similar in the peri-implant mucosa and gingiva in humans and that PICF and GCF production is governed by similar mechanisms.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to evaluate the soft tissue conditions at osseointegrated oral implants in relation to the width of masticatory mucosa. Thirty-nine patients who had received a full-arch fixed bridge reconstruction ≥ 10 years ago or a partial reconstruction ≥ 5 years ago on a total of 171 implants ad modum Brsnemark were included in the study. The examinations involved assessments of plaque, gingivitis, bleeding on probing, probing depth, width of masticatory mucosa and marginal tissue mobility. Simple correlation analysis as well as multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate relationships between recorded parameters. The results showed that 24% of the sites were lacking masticatory mucosa, and an additional 13% of the implants had a width of less than 2 mm. Mobility of the facial marginal soft tissue, i.e., lack of an attached portion of masticatory mucosa, was observed at 61% of all implants. No major differences in the clinical parameters examined were found between sites with and without an “adequate” width of masticatory mucosa. Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither the width of masticatory mucosa nor the mobility of the border tissue had a significant influence on (i) the standard of plaque control or (ii) the health condition of the peri-implant mucosa, as determined by bleeding on probing. Hence, the study failed to support the concept that the lack of an attached portion of masticatory mucosa may jeopardize the maintenance of soft tissue health around dental implants.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 7 clinically stable, “osseointegrated”, titanium implants, inserted in human jaws for l–16 years, were retrieved for morphological analysis of the bone-titanium interface, using 3 different preparation techniques. The bone-titanium interface varied as judged from light microscopy of ground sections. The threads of the implants were well filled 79–95% with dense lamellar bone as quantified with morphometry. A large fraction of the implant surface (56–85%) appeared to be in direct contact with the mineralized bone. In general, the non-boric areas consisted of pockets with osteocytes, bone marrow tissue and/or vessels. Sections were prepared for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy using a fracture technique. where the implant was separated from the embedded tissue before sectioning, and an electropolishing technique, where the bulk part of the implant was electrochemically removed. In areas judged as direct mineralized bone-titanium contact in the light microscope. the interfacial structure varied at the ultrastructural level. In areas along the interface, unmineralized tissue was present either as a narrow 0.5–l μm wide zone containing collagen fibril or as deeper pockets containing osteocytes or vessels. In areas with mineralized bone contact. an amorphous granular layer (100–400 nm wide) with no mineral was observed in the innermost interface bordering the mineralized bone, with an electron-dense lamina limitans-like line (approximately 50 nm thick). It is concluded that the bone-titanium interface of the 7 clinically retrieved titanium oral implants examined in the present study bone was heterogenous. In areas of a direct mineralized bone-titanium contact at the ultrastructural level. mineralized bone reached close to the implant surface, but was separated by an amorphous layer. 1 being 100–400 nm thick.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ten autopsy jaw specimens (6 mandibles. 4 maxillae) were used for cutting resistance measurements during low-speed threading. Overall, 31 sites were analyzed where implants were inserted into threaded canals. Bone area measurements were performed around the implants as described previously. The cutting resistance values together with the total bone area values were found to be higher in mandibles than in maxillae, and a tendency towards higher values was seen in incisor regions compared with premolar regions. Furthermore, an intraindividual comparison between the true cutting resistance and the bone density values of prepared sites showed a statistically significant correlation. The method with cutting resistance measurements for evaluation of bone quality seems therefore to be reliable, at least when used in human autopsy jaw bone specimens.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim was to longitudinally follow the colonization of putative periodontal pathogens on titanium implants in partially edentulous patients. Nineteen individuals, who were partially edentulous and were on the waiting-list to be treated with titanium fixtures, were included in the study. They were treated for periodontal disease with oral hygiene instructions and supra- and subgingival debridement and were left for maintenance. Full-mouth recordings of each patient were performed at baseline, including attachment level and probing pocket depth. Bleeding was provoked and visible plaque were registered. Subgingival samples were taken for examination of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Bridge connection was completed 1 month after abutment connection. The bone level was registered on radiographs. The patients were followed with clinical registrations and subgingival samples at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. No significant changes in pocket depth, attachment level, bleeding on probing or plaque score occurred during the experimental period. The number of individuals positive at teeth and abutments for the various bacterial species reached approximately similar levels at 6 months. No significant changes over time were seen. Comparison between bone height. seen on radiographs, at abutments after 2, 12 and 36 months gave only 3 sites with bone loss of 〉 0.5 mm. All these sites were found in one patient and were accompanied by P. intermedia.
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