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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Adverse drug event reporting ; Hospitalized ; patients ; Source/relative value of reports
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: This study investigated the relative value of adverse drug events reported by doctors, nurses and patients. Methods: The study was conducted on a total of four wards: the paediatric and internal medicine wards (including geriatric patients) of two peripheral hospitals in the Netherlands. Adverse drug events were collected by spontaneous reporting (doctor and nurse reports) and by daily ward visits, during which the patients were interviewed by a hospital pharmacist (patient reports). Criteria for relative value of the reported adverse drug events were the number of potentially serious reactions, the number of reactions not mentioned in the patient information leaflet and the number of reactions reported to new drugs (5 years or less on the Dutch market). No formal causality assessment was applied. Results: Over a period of 2 months in 1996 (Hospital I) and 2 months in 1997 (Hospital II) a total of 620 patients were included in the study and adverse drug events were reported in 179 (29%) of these cases. Doctors reported a statistically significant larger number of serious (26% of all doctor reports; odds ratio (OR) 3.2; confidence interval (CI) 1.2–8.7) and unknown (39%; OR 2.5; CI 1.0–6.0) adverse drug events than patients themselves during the daily ward visit. Doctors also reported more serious and unknown adverse drug events than nurses. Adverse reactions to new drugs were reported during the daily ward visit only (8% of all daily ward visit reports). Conclusion: This study reconfirms that doctors are the main source for reports of serious and unknown adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. However, patients themselves seem to report more adverse reactions to new drugs (during the daily ward visit). By focusing on patients using new drugs, the daily ward visit might become cost-effective. This needs to be explored in future studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Electrochimica Acta 38 (1993), S. 1989-1992 
    ISSN: 0013-4686
    Keywords: aluminium ; corrosion ; effect pH ; impedance measurements
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Pentamidine ; High-performance liquid chromatography ; High volume air sampling ; Personal air sampling ; Sediment samples ; Environmental contamination ; Health-care workers ; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ; Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia ; Human immunodeficiency virus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In our hospital safety guidelines are available for the handling of pentamidine in the day-care department, but no safety ventilation cabin is used because only one patient a day has been treated. The number of patients to be treated, however, is growing, resulting in the need to treat more than one patient a day. To determine the environmental contamination and exposure of health-care workers during and after aerosolised pentamidine treatment of more than one patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome a day a high-performance liquid chromatographic method is used for the detection and quantification of pentamidine. High volume air samples were taken before, immediately after and the day after a treatment session of up to three patients. Also, sediment samples and personal air samples close to the mouth of the health-care workers were taken. Immediately after a treatment session the air in the room contains 1.0–99.7 μg pentamidine per m3 of air. Before and the morning after treatment no pentamidine could be detected in the air. Sediment samples vary in detectable amounts of pentamidine from 〈5 to 1165 ng pentamidine/cm2. The personal air samples also show a large variation in quantities of pentamidine: 〈5–170 ng a filter. When large amounts of pentamidine in the high volume air samples are found high amounts of pentamidine on the sediment samples and the personal air samples are found as well. This means that the patients treated should be instructed well on how to use the nebulizer correctly and be monitored during treatment. Additional safety measures (for example the use of a safety ventilation cabin) should be taken when more than one patient is treated a day.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Adverse drug events ; Hospitalized patients ; Risk factors ; Pharmacoepidemiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Adverse drug events in hospitalized patients lead to increased morbidity, mortality and costs. Early detection of adverse drug events could aid in the prevention of these adverse outcomes. A cost‐effective system for the early detection of adverse drug events should focus on high risk patients. A study was set up with the primary aim to identify characteristics that are associated with the development of adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospitalized patients.ADE reports were gathered from physicians and nurses (spontaneous reports) and from patients after intensive ward interviews by hospital pharmacists. All patients admitted to the internal medicine wards of two Dutch hospitals, during a two month period, were included.The following characteristics were analyzed for their potential relationship to the occurence of ADEs: age (categorized), gender, number of drugs prescribed during hospital stay, types of drugs used and changes in drug use on admission.Age was found to be inversely associated with the development of ADEs (OR 0.36, CI 0.21‐0.61 for age category 〉 80 years; OR 0.56; CI 0.31‐1.02 for age category 75‐80 years and OR 0.69; CI 0.42‐1.11 for age category 60‐74 years). Furthermore, statistically significant associations were found for the number of drugs prescribed per hospitalized patient (for the class of 4‐6 drugs per patient OR 2.61, CI 1.32‐5.18), for newly prescribed drugs (OR 6.65, CI 2.63‐16.81) and for the cessation of drugs on hospital admission (OR 1.50, CI 1.02‐2.20). The use of gastrointestinal drugs (OR 2.13, CI 1.32‐3.45), central nervous system drugs (OR 1.66, CI 1.07‐2.57) and antibiotics (OR 2.44, CI 1.65‐3.60) were associated with the development of ADEs, when compared to all other drugs taken by the patients.In this study, the most important risk factors are the number of drugs used per patient and the starting of a new drug during hospitalization. As most hospitalized patients start new drug therapies while in hospital, this seems an inappropriate focus. However, careful monitoring of patients using more than 7 drugs at a time may be possible in a cost‐effective system for the early detection of ADEs.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Keywords: Closure models ; Drizzle ; Entrainment ; Large Eddy Simulation ; Observations ; Stratocumulus ; Turbulence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract As part of the EUropean Cloud REsolving Modelling (EUCREM) model intercomparison project we compared the properties and development of stratocumulus as revealed by actual observations and as derived from two types of models, namely three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and one-dimensional Single Column Models (SCMs). The turbulence, microphysical and radiation properties were obtained from observations made in solid stratocumulus during the third flight of the first 'Lagrangian' experiment of the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX). The goal of the intercomparison was to study the turbulence and microphysical properties of a stratocumulus layer with specified initial and boundary conditions. The LES models predict an entrainment velocity which is significantly larger than estimated from observations. Because the observed value contains a large experimental uncertainty no definitive conclusions can be drawn from this. The LES modelled buoyancy flux agrees rather well with the observed values, which indicates that the intensity of the convection is modelled correctly. From LES it was concluded that the inclusion of drizzle had a small influence (about 10%) on the buoyancy flux. All SCMs predict a solid stratocumulus layer with the correct liquid water profile. However, the buoyancy flux profile is poorly represented in these models. From the comparison with observations it is clear that there is considerable uncertainty in the parametrization of drizzle in both SCM and LES.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Inflammatory orbital disease can be triggered by a variety of causes. Two such diseases are pseudotumor orbitae and Grave's ophthalmopathy, and both involve extraocular muscles during a quiet phase in these two diseases. Biopsies obtained from a previous pseudotumor orbitae showed complement deposits and increased expression of HLA class-I antigens in the intermuscular tissue. The biopsies from two out of our pseudotumor cases and two out of four Grave's ophthalmophathy cases contained increased numbers of intermuscular HLA class-II-expressing cells. In spite of clinical remission, the local condition in all four pseudotumor cases and in two out of four cases of Grave's ophthalmopathy still suggests active inflammatory disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Chemical Physics Letters 194 (1992), S. 403-409 
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Chemical Physics Letters 218 (1984), S. 586-592 
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Chemical Physics Letters 218 (1994), S. 586-592 
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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